Quotations


Thought for Us


The important thing is not to stop questioning


A. Einstein

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Dark Matter & Modified Gravity


The relations between Dark Matter & Modified Gravity are being discussed at the Dark Matter & Modified Gravity Conference from 6 to 8 February 2019 at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. Interdisciplinary perspectives on Astrophysical and cosmological observations as well as explanatory gaps in the Standard Model of particle physics imply the existence of Dark Matter and/or a modification of our theory of space and time. The numerous Dark Matter and Modified Gravity approaches, even in the light of the vast amount of relevant collider based and astrophysical observations is complex, but the overlap of the research may allow for a simplification. One focus of this conference is Dark Matter searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)and the connection between theories of gravity. Discussions are  planned on choosing between the two research programs, and choosing between different models in each research program .
 
In this regard, a return of cosmology to Newtonian mechanics is proposed.      
 
Since the 1930's, astrophysical observations have implied the existence of Dark Matter because high velocity were measured. In the 1970's, the M31 spiral galaxy was extensively studied and shown to produce a flat rotation curve that supported the notion that Dark Matter exists. Only a decade ago, GL also showed the Bullet Cluster could not stay together without d the existence of Dark Matter. GL stands for gravitational lensing. In the above figure, the red area represents X-rays and the blue shows the Dark Matter as derived by GL.  However, direct experimental proof of a Dark Matter particle has not yet been found.  In the alternative to the existence of Dark Matter,  Modified Gravity has been proposed, but the agreement between numerical simulations of MOND and astrophysical observations is still only numerical, lacking any experimental verification.

But what if the notion that the existence of Dark Matter inferred from M31 and recent gravitational lensing including the Bullet Cluster is not correct?
 
It is important to note, the astrophysical observations were generally made with velocities inferred from Doppler`s effect and optical redshift and perhaps the procedure highly overstated the velocities. In this regard, cosmic dust that permeates the Universe is proposed to further redshift the light emitted from a distant galaxy thereby overstating the velocity of the galaxy to the extent that Dark Matter is thought to exist to keep the galaxy together. Unlike MOND, the redshift in cosmic dust is a physical mechanism well known from laser experiments of NPs in nanotechnology.  NPs stand for nanoparticles.
 
Since Hubble, redshift of galaxy light in cosmic dust went unnoticed for almost a century because light interaction with NPs was assumed to follow classical physics and increase in temperature upon absorbing a galaxy photon.  However, classical physics is not applicable as the dust is not macroscopic, but nanoscopic following the Planck law of QM requiring the heat capacity of the atoms in NPs to vanish, provided the NP is placed under high EM confinement. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Since EM confinement is naturally high in NPs because of their high surface-to-volume ratios, the galaxy photon is absorbed almost totally in the NP surface. Unable to increase in temperature, the NP cannot expand to relieve the surface heat, thereby providing the EM confinement for the atoms to make the heat capacity vanish. Lacking temperatures, photon absorption by a NP can only be conserved by a non-thermal mechanism proposed here as simple QED.
 
Simple QED relies on the high surface-to-volume ratios of cosmic dust NPs  to create, non-thermal standing EM radiation inside the NP across the diameter d having half-wavelength λo/2 = d. In effect, a redshifted galaxy photon having wavelength ?o is created inside the dust particle depending on its dimensions, i.e., the energy of the galaxy photon adjusts within the EM confinement defined by the dimension between opposing dust surfaces. The speed of light c corrected for the refractive index n of the dust gives the Planck energy E of the redshifted galaxy light, E = h(c/n)/λo. On Earth, the galaxy light is observed to have wavelength ?o with redshift z = (λo - λ)/λ, where λo = 2nd. Once the Planck energy of the galaxy photon is absorbed in the dust surface is expended in forming the redshifted photon, the EM confinement vanishes allowing the redshifted photon to freely travel to the Earth. 

By correcting for overstated velocities, galaxy dynamics follows Newtonian mechanics, or the low velocity limit of Einstein’s general relativity. Either way , cosmology returns to Newtonian mechanics once proposed by Einstein.  For more details, see the tentative Conference Abstract and PPT Presentation.