In the formulation of the force between neutral parallel metal plates separated by a gap, Casimir excluded electromagnetic (EM) waves in the gap having half-wavelengths longer than the gap. But EM radiation at all wavelengths was allowed on the outer plate surfaces. Casimir's formulation is commonly thought correct because the presence of long wavelength radiation on the outer surfaces and absence thereof in the gap would suggest the plates are pushed together. But EM energy is not conserved in the gap. Indeed, if EM energy is conserved, then EM energy is required to be gained at the resonant frequency of the gap to compensate for the loss of EM energy from the excluded long wavelength EM radiation. By neglecting the resonant EM gap radiation, Casimir found an attractive force between the plates. However, if Casimir would have included the resonant EM radiation required by the conservation of EM energy, he would have shown the Casimir force does not exist.
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