Thought for Us

The important thing is not to stop questioning

A. Einstein


Dark Matter & Modified Gravity

Dark Matter & Modified Gravity are being discussed at the Dark Matter & Modified Gravity Conference from 6 to 8 February 2019 at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. Interdisciplinary perspectives on astrophysical and cosmological observations as well as problems in the Standard Model of particle physics may imply the existence of Dark Matter and/or a modification of our theory of space and time. The numerous Dark Matter and Modified Gravity approaches, even in the light of the vast amount of relevant collider based and astrophysical observations is complex, but the overlap of the research may allow for a simplification. One focus of this conference is Dark Matter searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)and the connection between theories of gravity. Discussions are  planned on choosing between the two research programs, and choosing between different models in each research program. 
In this regard, a return of cosmology to Newtonian mechanics is herein proposed.      
Since the 1930's, astrophysical observations have implied the existence of Dark Matter because high velocities were measured. In the 1970's, the M31 spiral galaxy was extensively studied and shown to produce a flat rotation curve that also supported the notion that Dark Matter exists. Only a decade ago, GL showed the Bullet Cluster could not stay together without the existence of Dark Matter. GL stands for gravitational lensing. In the above figure, the red area represents X-ray heating and the blue shows the Dark Matter derived from GL.  However, direct experimental proof of a Dark Matter particle has not yet been found.  In the alternative to the existence of Dark Matter,  Modified Gravity has been proposed, but the agreement between numerical simulations of MOND and astrophysical observations is still only numerical, and lacking physical basis cannot be verified by experiment.
But what if the notion that the existence of Dark Matter inferred from M31 and recent GL data including the Bullet Cluster is not correct?
It is important to note, the astrophysical observations of Dark Matter were made with velocities inferred using optical redshift in Doppler's effect, and perhaps the redshifts overstated the velocities. In this regard, cosmic dust that permeates the Universe is proposed to redshift the light beyond that emitted from a distant galaxy. If the redshift from dust overstates the velocity of the galaxy to the extent that the galaxy cannot stay together as observed, it would be incorrect to assume Dark Matter exists, and instead, the velocities should be corrected for redshift in cosmic dust. Alternatively, by neglecting the dust redshift, the galaxy velocities would be lower bound by Newtonian mechanics.  Unlike MOND, the redshift in cosmic dust may be experimentally verified and is a well -known phenomenon in laser experiments of NPs in nanotechnology.  NPs stand for nanoparticles. 
Since Hubble, redshift of galaxy light in cosmic dust went unnoticed for almost a century because light interaction with NPs was assumed to follow classical physics and increase in temperature upon absorbing a galaxy photon.  However, classical physics is not applicable as the dust is not macroscopic, but rather nanoscopic following the Planck law of QM that requires the heat capacity of the atoms in NPs to vanish, provided the NP atoms are placed under high EM confinement. QM stands for quantum mechanics. As nature would have it, EM confinement is naturally high in NPs because of their high surface-to-volume ratios, and therefore the galaxy photon is almost totally absorbed  in the NP surface. Unable to increase in temperature, the NP cannot expand to relieve the surface heat, thereby providing the EM confinement necessary for the heat capacity of the atoms to vanish. Lacking a thermal response, photon absorption by a NP can only be conserved by a non-thermal mechanism proposed here as simple QED. 
Simple QED relies on the high surface-to-volume ratios of cosmic dust NPs  to create, non-thermal standing EM radiation inside the NP across the diameter d having half-wavelength λo/2 = d. In effect, a galaxy photon having wavelength λ is redshifted to λo depending on the NP dimensions, i.e., the energy of the galaxy photon adjusts within the EM confinement defined by the NP dimensions between opposing dust surfaces. The speed of light c corrected for the refractive index n of the dust gives the Planck energy E of the redshifted galaxy light, E = h(c/n)/λo. On Earth, the galaxy light is observed to have wavelength λo with redshift z = (λo - λ)/λ, where λo = 2nd. Once the Planck energy of the galaxy photon absorbed in the dust surface is expended in forming the redshifted galaxy photon, the EM confinement vanishes allowing the redshifted photon to freely travel to the Earth.

By correcting for overstated velocities, galaxy dynamics follows Newtonian mechanics, or the low velocity limit of Einstein’'s general relativity. Either way, cosmology returns to Newtonian mechanics once proposed by Einstein.  For more details, see the tentative Conference Abstract and PPT Presentation. An Audio MP3 file is available. Open PPT and audio files in separate windows. Play the Audio MP3 file and manually follow with the PPT file.

The EuroSciCon is the 11th Edition of International Conference on Structural Biology held during  March 07-08, 2019 in Berlin.  Structural Biology is directed to predicting the 3D structures of proteins using the computational techniques. Of interest is the computational methods in the folding and unfoldiibg of  small proteins.

Despite explaining protein folding using classical statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, few molecular dynamics (MD) simulations explicitly include basic physical electrostatics and Van Der Waals forces. Although folding occurs in isolation, MD simulations are performed with  periodic boundaries. Heat provides the denaturant, and is simulated by specifying the protein temperature. Classical  thermodynamics assumes the native folded state of globular proteins to correspond lowest-energy states, but this is not always true. Moreover, folding is a rapid process that occurs on microsecond time scales, but the response of proteins having a hydrophobic interior is a slow process. In contrast, electrostatic effects propagating at light speed and are important for rapid kinetics, but neglected in MD simulations.  

More fundamentally, current MD simulations are problematic because of the differences between classical physics and QM with respect to the heat capacity of the atom. QM stands for quantum mechanics. In this regard, proteins are generally thought to unfold upon increasing temperature based on the classical assumption the constituent atoms have heat capacity. But  the Planck law of QM requires the heat capacity of the atom to vanish with conservation proceeding by creating EM radiation that removes electrons to positively charge the protein atoms. What this means is the heat thought to induce unfolding by increasing the temperature of proteins is actually conserved by producing charge that unfolds the protein by Coulomb repulsion. See Abstract

Dark matter research is undergoing a paradigm shift. Over the last few years, many novel theories have been proposed that challenge the standard assumptions made about dark matter. At the same time, new observations and simulation results are providing valuable clues regarding the most fruitful directions moving forward.

The “Novel Ideas for Dark Matter 2019” Workshop at Princeton University attempts to bridge the gap between communities working on non-standard solutions to the dark matter problem. Plenary talks on theory, observations and simulations will be structured into a three day schedule that will provide a broad overview of research avenues of this type. The workshop aims to promote conversations between research communities with ample time for open discussion.

In this regard, the non-standard solution to Dark Matter is described by the effect of cosmic dust in overstating the redshift of galaxies that by the Doppler shift gives the  high velocities observed that suggests Dark Matter exist to hold the galaxies together. See above Dark Matter and Modified Gravity Conference where emphasis is placed on the M31 spiral galaxy and gravitational lensing. In the Novel Ideas for Dark Matter Workshop, cosmic dust redshift is proposed as the cause of the the variability of the Hubble constant, especially quasars.Hubble first embraced a static Universe until his discovery of the relation of galaxy redshift to astronomical distance and velocity that subsequently led to Einstein’s expanding Universe. However, until the time of his death, Hubble was not convinced his redshift data supported Universe expansion.  Quoting Hubble:
"it is difficult to believe that the velocities are real; that all matter is actually scattering away  from our region of space. It is easier to suppose that the light waves are lengthened and the lines of the spectra are shifted to the red, as though the objects were receding, by some  property of space or by forces acting on the light during its journey to the Earth"
Cosmic dust is a property of space and can redshift light by Hubble redshift or intrinsic redshift shown below. Hubble redshift is light emitted from a galaxy that is recessing from the Earth. By the Doppler effect, the recession velocity V is given by redshift z and the speed of light c. Intrinsic redshift may occur as a dust NP in free space absorbs a photon from the ISM or heat Q from the galaxy. Intrinsic redshift differs from Hubble as the NPs need not have any velocity.

Over the past 50 years,  observations are numerous and compelling that the linear Hubble law: V=HoD describing the standard redshift-distance relationship is not correct. Here, V stands for galaxy velocity and D for the distance to the galaxy from the Earth. Notably, observations show the presence of quasars physically connected to galaxies suggesting both are moving together having the same redshift, but the quasars are found to have far higher redshifts than the galaxies.

What this means is the redshifts are intrinsic (non-cosmological)  and do not have anything to do with galaxy velocity therefore posing a serious dilemma for a cosmology based on an expanding Universe. See prelimnary paper

"The Hubble constant and Intrinsic redshift in Cosmic Dust"

In conclusion, the Hubble constant is not a constant, but varies throughout the Universe. Moreover, the Hubble law is not valid because of the intrinsic redshift of cosmic dust. It is noteworthy  that quasars do not follow the Hubble law. In fact, Hubble based his law on galaxies, but if he had first studied quasars, he would not have concluded the Universe was expanding. An expanding Universe based on the Hubble law is therefore unlikely suggesting the Universe is static and infinite as Einstein once thought.

Astrophysics and Space Sciences

Olbers Paradox

2nd European Physics Congress to be held during May 20-21, 2019 in Berlin, Germany. The main theme of the Conference is "Highlighting Innovations and Challenges in the Field of Physics" which covers a wide range of critically important issues. Physics Congress 2019 is a novel chance to deliberate and share innovative and theoretical knowledge on physics. Of interest is Olbers paradox that requires the speculative Big Bang to explain why the night sky is dark and not bright. See Abstract

Dark Matter Identification

The Dark Matter Identification (DMI) workshop is to be held on 1-12 April at Johannes Gutenberg University  in Mainz. The workshop Program is to bring together experts from various Dark Matter (DM) communities: model builders, astroparticle physicists, collider phenomenologists, experimentalists and developers of DM tools and to catalyse discussions and collaborations in the atmosphere of the real workshop.

Reasons for Participation: I have developed a cosmology based on the Planck law of quantum mechanics that argues cosmic dust increases the redshift above that given by Hubble thereby overstating the galaxy velocities to the point that dark matter is thought to exist to hold the galaxy together. So, the LCDM model is not necessary as galaxy dynamics follows Newtonian mechanics.

General Remarks: Today, Newtonian mechanics is not appreciated by astronomers. Nevertheless, dark matter does not exist because of cosmic dust. The question is whether astronomy can justify searches for dark matter particles that do not exist..

For details, see above

Dark Matter & Modified Gravity

Novel Ideas for Dark Matter

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