Thought for Us

The important thing is not to stop questioning

A. Einstein


Dark Matter & Modified Gravity

Dark Matter & Modified Gravity are being discussed at the Dark Matter & Modified Gravity Conference from 6 to 8 February 2019 at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. Interdisciplinary perspectives on astrophysical and cosmological observations as well as problems in the Standard Model of particle physics may imply the existence of Dark Matter and/or a modification of our theory of space and time. The numerous Dark Matter and Modified Gravity approaches, even in the light of the vast amount of relevant collider based and astrophysical observations is complex, but the overlap of the research may allow for a simplification. One focus of this conference is Dark Matter searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)and the connection between theories of gravity. Discussions are  planned on choosing between the two research programs, and choosing between different models in each research program. 
In this regard, a return of cosmology to Newtonian mechanics is herein proposed.      
Since the 1930's, astrophysical observations have implied the existence of Dark Matter because high velocities were measured. In the 1970's, the M31 spiral galaxy was extensively studied and shown to produce a flat rotation curve that also supported the notion that Dark Matter exists. Only a decade ago, GL showed the Bullet Cluster could not stay together without the existence of Dark Matter. GL stands for gravitational lensing. In the above figure, the red area represents X-ray heating and the blue shows the Dark Matter derived from GL.  However, direct experimental proof of a Dark Matter particle has not yet been found.  In the alternative to the existence of Dark Matter,  Modified Gravity has been proposed, but the agreement between numerical simulations of MOND and astrophysical observations is still only numerical, and lacking physical basis cannot be verified by experiment.
But what if the notion that the existence of Dark Matter inferred from M31 and recent GL data including the Bullet Cluster is not correct?
It is important to note, the astrophysical observations of Dark Matter were made with velocities inferred using optical redshift in Doppler's effect, and perhaps the redshifts overstated the velocities. In this regard, cosmic dust that permeates the Universe is proposed to redshift the light beyond that emitted from a distant galaxy. If the redshift from dust overstates the velocity of the galaxy to the extent that the galaxy cannot stay together as observed, it would be incorrect to assume Dark Matter exists, and instead, the velocities should be corrected for redshift in cosmic dust. Alternatively, by neglecting the dust redshift, the galaxy velocities would be lower bound by Newtonian mechanics.  Unlike MOND, the redshift in cosmic dust may be experimentally verified and is a well -known phenomenon in laser experiments of NPs in nanotechnology.  NPs stand for nanoparticles. 
Since Hubble, redshift of galaxy light in cosmic dust went unnoticed for almost a century because light interaction with NPs was assumed to follow classical physics and increase in temperature upon absorbing a galaxy photon.  However, classical physics is not applicable as the dust is not macroscopic, but rather nanoscopic following the Planck law of QM that requires the heat capacity of the atoms in NPs to vanish, provided the NP atoms are placed under high EM confinement. QM stands for quantum mechanics. As nature would have it, EM confinement is naturally high in NPs because of their high surface-to-volume ratios, and therefore the galaxy photon is almost totally absorbed  in the NP surface. Unable to increase in temperature, the NP cannot expand to relieve the surface heat, thereby providing the EM confinement necessary for the heat capacity of the atoms to vanish. Lacking a thermal response, photon absorption by a NP can only be conserved by a non-thermal mechanism proposed here as simple QED. 
Simple QED relies on the high surface-to-volume ratios of cosmic dust NPs  to create, non-thermal standing EM radiation inside the NP across the diameter d having half-wavelength λo/2 = d. In effect, a galaxy photon having wavelength λ is redshifted to λo depending on the NP dimensions, i.e., the energy of the galaxy photon adjusts within the EM confinement defined by the NP dimensions between opposing dust surfaces. The speed of light c corrected for the refractive index n of the dust gives the Planck energy E of the redshifted galaxy light, E = h(c/n)/λo. On Earth, the galaxy light is observed to have wavelength λo with redshift z = (λo - λ)/λ, where λo = 2nd. Once the Planck energy of the galaxy photon absorbed in the dust surface is expended in forming the redshifted galaxy photon, the EM confinement vanishes allowing the redshifted photon to freely travel to the Earth.

By correcting for overstated velocities, galaxy dynamics follows Newtonian mechanics, or the low velocity limit of Einstein’'s general relativity. Either way, cosmology returns to Newtonian mechanics once proposed by Einstein.  For more details, see the tentative Conference Abstract and PPT Presentation. An Audio MP3 file is available. Open PPT and audio files in separate windows. Play the Audio MP3 file and manually follow with the PPT file.

The EuroSciCon is the 11th Edition of International Conference on Structural Biology held during  March 07-08, 2019 in Berlin.  Structural Biology is directed to predicting the 3D structures of proteins using the computational techniques. Of interest is the computational methods in the folding and unfoldiibg of  small proteins.

Despite explaining protein folding using classical statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, few molecular dynamics (MD) simulations explicitly include basic physical electrostatics and Van Der Waals forces. Although folding occurs in isolation, MD simulations are performed with  periodic boundaries. Heat provides the denaturant, and is simulated by specifying the protein temperature. Classical  thermodynamics assumes the native folded state of globular proteins to correspond lowest-energy states, but this is not always true. Moreover, folding is a rapid process that occurs on microsecond time scales, but the response of proteins having a hydrophobic interior is a slow process. In contrast, electrostatic effects propagating at light speed and are important for rapid kinetics, but neglected in MD simulations.  

More fundamentally, current MD simulations are problematic because of the differences between classical physics and QM with respect to the heat capacity of the atom. QM stands for quantum mechanics. In this regard, proteins are generally thought to unfold upon increasing temperature based on the classical assumption the constituent atoms have heat capacity. But  the Planck law of QM requires the heat capacity of the atom to vanish with conservation proceeding by creating EM radiation that removes electrons to positively charge the protein atoms. What this means is the heat thought to induce unfolding by increasing the temperature of proteins is actually conserved by producing charge that unfolds the protein by Coulomb repulsion. See Abstract

Dark matter research is undergoing a paradigm shift. Over the last few years, many novel theories have been proposed that challenge the standard assumptions made about dark matter. At the same time, new observations and simulation results are providing valuable clues regarding the most fruitful directions moving forward.

The “Novel Ideas for Dark Matter 2019” Workshop at Princeton University attempts to bridge the gap between communities working on non-standard solutions to the dark matter problem. Plenary talks on theory, observations and simulations will be structured into a three day schedule that will provide a broad overview of research avenues of this type. The workshop aims to promote conversations between research communities with ample time for open discussion.

In this regard, the non-standard solution to Dark Matter is described by the effect of cosmic dust in overstating the redshift of galaxies that by the Doppler shift gives the  high velocities observed that suggests Dark Matter exist to hold the galaxies together. See above Dark Matter and Modified Gravity Conference where emphasis is placed on the M31 spiral galaxy and gravitational lensing. In the Novel Ideas for Dark Matter Workshop, cosmic dust redshift is proposed as the cause of the the variability of the Hubble constant, especially quasars.Hubble first embraced a static Universe until his discovery of the relation of galaxy redshift to astronomical distance and velocity that subsequently led to Einstein’s expanding Universe. However, until the time of his death, Hubble was not convinced his redshift data supported Universe expansion.  Quoting Hubble:
"it is difficult to believe that the velocities are real; that all matter is actually scattering away  from our region of space. It is easier to suppose that the light waves are lengthened and the lines of the spectra are shifted to the red, as though the objects were receding, by some  property of space or by forces acting on the light during its journey to the Earth"
Cosmic dust is a property of space and can redshift light by Hubble redshift or intrinsic redshift shown below. Hubble redshift is light emitted from a galaxy that is recessing from the Earth. By the Doppler effect, the recession velocity V is given by redshift z and the speed of light c. Intrinsic redshift may occur as a dust NP in free space absorbs a photon from the ISM or heat Q from the galaxy. Intrinsic redshift differs from Hubble as the NPs need not have any velocity.

Over the past 50 years,  observations are numerous and compelling that the linear Hubble law: V=HoD describing the standard redshift-distance relationship is not correct. Here, V stands for galaxy velocity and D for the distance to the galaxy from the Earth. Notably, observations show the presence of quasars physically connected to galaxies suggesting both are moving together having the same redshift, but the quasars are found to have far higher redshifts than the galaxies.

What this means is the redshifts are intrinsic (non-cosmological)  and do not have anything to do with galaxy velocity therefore posing a serious dilemma for a cosmology based on an expanding Universe. See prelimnary paper

"The Hubble constant and Intrinsic redshift in Cosmic Dust"

In conclusion, the Hubble constant is not a constant, but varies throughout the Universe. Moreover, the Hubble law is not valid because of the intrinsic redshift of cosmic dust. It is noteworthy  that quasars do not follow the Hubble law. In fact, Hubble based his law on galaxies, but if he had first studied quasars, he would not have concluded the Universe was expanding. An expanding Universe based on the Hubble law is therefore unlikely suggesting the Universe is static and infinite as Einstein once thought.

Astrophysics and Space Sciences

Olbers Paradox

2nd European Physics Congress to be held during May 20-21, 2019 in Berlin, Germany. The main theme of the Conference is "Highlighting Innovations and Challenges in the Field of Physics" which covers a wide range of critically important issues. Physics Congress 2019 is a novel chance to deliberate and share innovative and theoretical knowledge on physics. Of interest is Olbers paradox that requires the speculative Big Bang to explain why the night sky is dark and not bright. See Abstract

Vaccination adjuvants and autism

Neuro-degenerative diseases including Autism are characterized by the proliferation of cells from mutations of the neuron's DNA sequence. The DNA damage may be caused by exposure to exogenous agents such as solar UV radiation applied to the skin. However, Science does not recognize DNA damage from UV radiation in internal body tissue. But the implications of UV radiaton from large quantities of aluminum NPs found in the human brain changes this paradigm. NPs stand for nanoparticles. Indeed,  neuron stimulation by UV radiation from NPs is serious problem. The UV is created because quantum mechanics precludes the conservation of heat from metabolic prodcesses to be conserved by an increase in temperature. Instead, UV radiation is emitted that is in fact risky as the DNA damage, if not repaired by the immune system lead to autism. See PR.

In this regard, the rampant increase in Autism has prompted investigations in the US of vaccinations containing NPs of aluminum adjuvants that enter the brain across the blood-brain barrier.  CDC is in charge of recommending the vaccination schedule for US children. CDC stands for Center of Disease Control. The CDC monitors vaccine safety and tracks the number of children with Autism in the US, i.e., from 1 in 10,000 in the 1980 's to 1 in 68 today. In 2016,  the just elected President Trump was quoted as saying:
"When I was growing up, Autism wasn't really a factor and now all of a sudden, it's an epidemic. Everybody has their theory, and my theory is the shots. They're getting these massive injections at one time. I think it's the vaccinations."

President Trump is correct about the rapid increase in Autism from vaccinations, but the cause of Autism is not the vaccine, but rather the submicron NPs of aluminum adjuvants in the shots.  See PR

Of interest here, is the link between vaccination adjuvants and autism. Aluminum adjuvants are essential in vaccines to stimulate immune activation of antigens. Without adjuvants, antigen stimulation would be ineffective making vaccinations meaningless.  Typically, adjuvants are 10-100 nm submicron NPs of aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3 that agglomerate into larger particles with sizes of about 2-20 microns.By the theory of simple QED, the UV producing adjuvants are the 10-100 nm submicron NPs and the larger 2-20 micron particles that are benign in producing UV.

Simple QED conserves metabolic heat by creating non-thermal EM radiation standing across the NP diameter d having half-wavelength λ/2 = d as the heat adjusts to the EM confinement bounded by the NP surface. The speed of light c corrected for the refractive index n of the NP gives the Planck energy E = h(c/n)/λ, i.e., E = hc/2nd. Hence, the 2-20 micron particles produce EM radiation in the IR that is harmless in damaging DNA; whereas, the 10-100 nm submicron particles do indeed produce EM radiation in the UV and beyond.

In the figure above, UV radiation is depicted emitted from 10-100 nm particles located on the periphery of the larger 2-20 micron particle. To emit UV at 254 nm, Al(OH)3 with a refractive index n = 1.568 requires a NP diameter d = λ/ 2n ~ 81 nm. By QM, each Al(OH)3 molecule is precluded from having thermal kT energy. Instead, the molecule has an equivalent nonthermal EM energy U, i.e., U = kT, where k is Boltzmann's constant and T is absolute temperature. At a body temperature T = 40 C = 310 K, U = 0.0267 eV. The EM energy E of the UVC  photon at λ = 254 nm, E = hc/λ = 4.88 eV and therefore about 182 Al(OH)3 molecules are required to create a single UVC photon. In a d  = 81 nm NP, the number N of molecules >> 182 meaning many UVC photons are emitted. The NP recovers the emitted UVC energy almost instantaneously from the temperature of the surroundings only to re-emit consecutive UVC photons continuously. See Abstract

Dark Matter Identification

The Dark Matter Identification (DMI) workshop is to be held on 1-12 April at Johannes Gutenberg University  in Mainz. The workshop Program is to bring together experts from various Dark Matter (DM) communities: model builders, astroparticle physicists, collider phenomenologists, experimentalists and developers of DM tools and to catalyse discussions and collaborations in the atmosphere of the real workshop.

Reasons for Participation: I have developed a cosmology based on the Planck law of quantum mechanics that argues cosmic dust increases the redshift above that given by Hubble thereby overstating the galaxy velocities to the point that dark matter is thought to exist to hold the galaxy together. So, the LCDM model is not necessary as galaxy dynamics follows Newtonian mechanics.

General Remarks: Today, Newtonian mechanics is not appreciated by astronomers. Nevertheless, dark matter does not exist because of cosmic dust. The question is whether astronomy can justify searches for dark matter particles that do not exist..

For details, see above

Dark Matter & Modified Gravity

Novel Ideas for Dark Matter

NASA and Starlite

Starlite is a material claimed to be able to withstand extreme heat without high temperature. It was invented by British amateur chemist Maurice Ward during the 1970's and 1980's, and received significant publicity after coverage of the material aired by  the BBC in 1990. In 2018, the BBC re-showed their 1980 Starlite presentation.

Since 1980, NASA and other major technological companies have reviewed Starlite, but to this day Starlite is not yet commercialized. Ward, who died in 2011, never revealed the composition of Starlite, which is still unknown, but is said to contain a variety of organic polymers  with both organic and inorganic additives. Simply put, Starlite is a mixture of corn starch, baking soda and PVA glue. PVA stands for poly vinyl acetate. Starlite is claimed to be able to withstand heat from a laser beam that otherwise would produce a temperature of 10,000 C.   
Live demonstrations  showed that an egg coated with Starlite remains raw, but cold enough to be picked up with a bare hand, even after five minutes at 2500 C in the flame of a blowtorch as shown below. When heat is applied, the material chars creating an expanding low density foam which is thought to be very thermally resistant. See NightHawkinLight

To explain Starlite, heat transfer of NPs in a matrix of PVA glue is required. NPs stands for nanoparticles  (< 100 nm) of  corn starch and baking soda.  But in 1980, heat transfer was dominated by classical physics where heat absorbed by NPs does indeed increase in temperature with the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation equation describing temperature.  
But heat transfer of NPs requires simple QED based on QM as the NPs are nanoscale.
QM stands for quantum mechanics while simple QED is described throughout this website. Briefly, simple QED requires the heat capacity of isolated NPs vanishes in a thermally expanded matrix of a low density solidified glue, and therefore the NPs conserve heat of the blow torch by the emission of EM radiation.  As shown in the BBC presentation, VIS light in the red was emitted. But not seen is emitted UV light. Except for a small temperature increase in the PVA glue, there is no increase in the temperature of the NPs as almost all of the heat is removed by EM radiation, thereby explaining how the egg remains raw after exposure to blow torch heating. For verification of Starlite by simple QED, NASA is recommended to perform spectroscopic measurements of the EM emission from the blow-torch heated egg. 

Missing Neutrinos and Simple QED

The sun produces energy upon fusion of a pair of hydrogen atoms. In the high temperature at the center of the sun ionize hydrogen atoms into a plasm of protons and electrons. In classical physics, two protons cannot fuse because of Coulomb repulsion posing a problem on fusion as the source of solar energy.  In 1928, the probability that two protons can get  very close to each other is zero. To overcome the impossibility of protons fusing,  QM was invoked to give a non-zero probability of two protons overcoming Coulomb  repulsion and coming very close together. QM stands for quantum mechanics.  About a decade later, the basic nuclear processes by which stars fuse hydrogen into helium in stellar interiors was proposed as the P-P chain reaction.

4 H  = 4 He  + 2 electrons + 2 neutrinos + 2E

Each pair of hydrogen atoms requires energy E to initiate fusion and produces one neutrino. To initiate fusion of a pair, the standard solar model was a sun with a central temperature T  = 15 million degrees K corresponding to EM energy E of about 2 keV, where E = 1.5 kT and k is Boltzmann’'s constant. Since then, nuclear fusion has been generally thought to require energy E > 2 keV.

In 1964, experiment showed the neutrino produced when a pair of hydrogen atoms fuse were found to be fewer, about 1/ 3 the number predicted. The standard model of neutrinos is a massless particle moving at the speed of light. Over the next decades, both  the experiment and the prediction were always confirmed. The dilemma referred to as the Missing Neutrinos Problem, the resolution of which was to change the standard model of the  massless neutrino to consist of 3 types: electron , muon  and tau, each having different, but small masses. Moreover, the neutrino was allowed to oscillate from one type to the other. Since the sun only produces electron neutrinos, and since early experiments detected only electron neutrinos, the Missing Neutrino Problem was thought resolved as 1/3 of the electron neutrinos were indeed detected, but the remaining 2/ 3 of muon and tau neutrinos could not be detected. Later experiments that measured all neutrinos: electron, muon, and tau types did not show a neutrino deficit thereby confirming the standard neutrino model modified only for changing non-zero rest masses.

However, the modified neutrino model  having changing non-zero rest masses for electron,  muon, and tau types is not appealing because underlying physical mechanisms are not well understood.  Indeed, if the actual fusion is 1/3 the expected rate, then the an additional source of energy is required to supply the remaining 2/3 of the sun'’s power.   Gravitational collapse having  temperatures T = 6.8 million K  or E = 0.8 keV can be dismissed as fusion requires T = 15 million K  and E = 2 keV.  Another non-fusion energy source called simple QED is proposed.

Simple QED based on real photons  is an altogether different version of Feynman'’s QED based on virtual photons illustrated in Figure 1. What this means is the sun produces only 1/3 the expected number of neutrinos and requires an additional source of non-fusion energy to supply the remaining 2/3 of the sun’'s power.   Non-fusion gravitational collapse having  temperatures T = 6.8 million K  or E = 0.8 keV can be dismissed as fusion requires T > 15 million K  and E > 2 keV.  Another non-fusion energy source called simple QED is proposed.

Classically, atoms have heat capacity allowing hydrogen atom in the central core of the sun to act as a 15 million K bath. Atoms in the central bath stop increasing in temperature upon reaching 15 million K. But simple QED argues QM precludes the atom from having the heat capacity to change in temperature. The EM energy E of the 15  million K bath is E = 1.5 kT = 2 keV. By QM, the  EM energy accumulated by the atom does not stop at 2 keV, but continues to increase until the simple QED  limit of the atom given by the EM energy of a wave standing across the diameter d of the atom. Unlike temperature, 2 keV  EM energy may be continually accumulated by an atom until being released at the energy of a higher quantum state.
In this regard, the quantum state is the energy E of the standing wave in the atom is E = hc/2d, where h is Planck’'s constant and c the speed of light. For hydrogen having diameter d = 106 pm, E = 5.8 keV. What this means is the atom does not stop accepting EM energy  at the 2 keV of energy in the bath, but continuously accepts 2 keV EM energy until emission upon reaching the 5.8 keV level. Hence, the emission of a single neutrino at 2 keV corresponds to  a total EM energy release of 5.8 keV, the emission of a single neutrino gives the fraction of neutrinos as 2 / 5.8 ~ 0. 34 or about 1/ 3 consistent with experiment. Simple QED suggests the atom itself provides about 2/ 3 of the sun’'s power
In conclusion, the Missing Neutrino Problem is not resolved by oscillations among non-zero rest masses for electron,  muon, and tau types, at least until the underlying physical mechanisms are understood.  In contrast, simple QED is based on the Planck law of QM which requires the heat capacity of the hydrogen atom to vanish which means the central temperature of the sun Is not 15 million K,  but rather EM energy at 2 keV.  Nothing could be simpler. The central region is likened to a 2 keV CW laser irradiating a hydrogen atom  with quantum state at 5.8 keV.  Hence, the number of neutrinos  emitted is 2/5.8 ~ 0.34 or about 1/3 of that expected.

Resolution of the difficulty that protons cannot  get  very close to each other to initiate fusion thought to occur by  QM allowing fusion to occur over a short time is also superseded by simple QED.  Atoms in a bath of 2 keV radiation emit 5.8 keV photons that can initiate fusion at another atom over a distance and do not require contact.

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