Quotations

Thought for Us


It doesn't matter how beautiful your theory is,

it doesn't matter how smart you are,

if it doesn't agree with experiment, its wrong.


R. P. Feynman



The Bernoulli equation and nanochannels

Flow through nanochannels of CNTs is observed to be 2-5 orders of magnitude higher than predicted by the Hagen-Poiseuille equation. CNT stands for carbon nanotube. However, the disparity with experiment cannot be explained by slip at the wall. In this regard, MD simulations of liquid argon valid by QM show flow enhancement to occur because the viscosity vanishes in nanochannels. QM stands for quantum mechanics. See Press Release

Vanishing viscosity occurs because QED conserves the viscous heat in the nanochannel by creating EM radiation that ionizes the fluid molecules to produces a flow of charged atoms as depicted in the above figure. The charged atoms.under Coulomb repulsion separate more than usual to give a vanishing viscosity. QED induced charged flow in nanochannels should therefore approach rhe frictionless flow given by the Bernoulli equation.

The Bernoulli equation for the mass flow through nanochannels follows from the QED energy equation that excludes temperature changes as required by QM. Indeed, the Bernoulli equation provides a reasonable QM approximation to the flow in nanochannels that avoids the complexity of MD solutions. With the exception of water, the measured flow is close to but less than that predicted by the Bernoulli equation. See data in Paper on "The end of nanochannels"

The frictionless Bernoulli equation is far simpler than performing MD simulations, even if one sets aside the fact that standard MD programs give meaningless results because of their QM invalidity. However, if MD programs are corrected for QM, valid MD solutions for nanochannel flow may be obtained but still the MD cannot be justified compared to the utter simplicity of the Bernoulli equation. Press Release

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 QED Induced Water Purification

Currently, WHO/UNICEF estimates almost 1 billion people in the developing world do not have access to safe drinking water. Moreover, about 2 million childhood deaths have been attributed to water-borne diseases. Conventional water treatment is unfeasible because of costs. Lacking municipal water supplies, the water is collected from rivers or lakes and stored in containers for later use which may also be contaminated. The most direct way of purification  is by boiling small quantities of water, but this requires a source of heat which, except for fire, is usually not available. Because it is not always convenient to build a fire, it is highly desirable to consider alternative low-cost methods for purifying water.

Unfortunately, there are no known low-cost alternatives to purifying water other than by boiling. However boiling has disadvantages because a source of heat is needed. One could envision focusing sunlight to boil small volumes of drinking water, but the purified water would only be available during daylight hours. If, however, portable electrical power is available, the water could be pumped through ceramic or resin filters coated with silver NPs. NP stands for nanoparticle. Silver NPs are widely known to provide antimicrobial action by damaging the DNA of bacteria, but NPs that come off the filter and enter drinking water also damage human DNA, that if not repaired, may lead to cancer. Regardless, NP coated filters are unfeasible because electrical pumping power is usually not available. In contrast, UV disinfection of drinking water occurs outside the body and avoids the danger of cancer posed by silver NPs, but is unfeasible as electrical power is generally not available and costly even if available.

The developing world needs an inexpensive way of purifying drinking water.

QED induced UV radiation using nano-coated drinking bowls is proposed as the mechanism by which drinking water is purified inexpensively without electrical power. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. QED induced purification is a consequence of QM that forbids the atoms in nano-coatings under TIR confinement to have the heat capacity to increase in temperature. QM stands for quantum mechanics and TIR for total internal reflection.

Disinfection occurs as the body heat from the hands of the person holding the drinking bowl is transferred to the coating as shown in the above figure. Because of QM, the body heat cannot increase the temperature of the coating as its heat capacity vanishes under TIR. Instead, the heat is conserved by QED inducing the heat to be converted to EM radiation. EM stands for electromagnetic. The TIR confinement only occurs as heat flows into the coating, i.e., absent body heat there is no TIR confinement and UV radiation. The TIR wavelength λ of the EM radiation is,

λ = 2 n d

where, n and d are the refractive index and thickness of the coating. Since the optimum UV wavelength range to destroy bacteria is between 250 and 270 nm, a zinc oxide coating having n = 2 requires the coating thickness d = 65 nm. See Press Release. and Presentation

On November 6, the IUVA held a one-day symposium on the UV disinfection of water in the developing world at UNESCO-IHE in Delph, Netherlands.  See Advertisement New developments in UV sterilization of water proposed LED sources as a replacement for mercury discharge. However, the water bowl UV disnfection of water is far more efficient than LEDs as no electrical power is required. Funding of water bowl research was discussed with attendees.



N-V Thermometry in LIving Cells

The October issue of Physics Today reported electron-spin measurements at N-V defects in diamond allows resolution of temperatures from 300 to 650 K at mK accuracy. N-V stands for nitrogen-vacancy as shown in the above figure.  But the supporting experiiments for were based on bulk mm-scale diamond crystals – not NDs.  ND stands for rnanodiamond. Hence, N-V spin level thermometry in mm-scale diamond crystals is indeed feasible in temperature measurements at the macroscale, but thhe crystals are too large to measure temperatures inside living cells having dimensions of a few 10's of microns.  Instead, NDs of 100 nm size implanted in living cells are proposed to measure cell temperatures.
 
Unlike the bulk mm-scale diamond, QM denies the atoms in NDs the heat capacity to allow temperature changes to occur thereby refuting the claim that ND temperature can be measured from thermal strains in mm-scale diamond samples. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Thermal strains in NDs are therefore not the same as in the mm-scale crystals making  the HD thermometry of living cells highly questionable.  
 
QED induced EM radiation is proposed as the mechanism by which the local thermal energy of the living cell is conserved in NDs without temperature changes. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics and EM for electromagnetic. QED induced radiation is a consequence of QM that denies the atoms in NDs under TIR confinement to have the heat capacity to allow changes in temperature. TIR stands for total internal reflection. 
 
Indeed, classical heat transfer of NDs shows uniform temperatures throughout that almost spontaneously follow the local cell temperature. QM differs. Since the ND temperatures cannot change by QM, the local thermal energy acquired from the cell may only be conserved by QED creating EM radiation in the ND having Planck energy E = hf, where h and f are Planck’s constant and the TIR frequency of the ND. Since NDs have high surface to volume ratios, almost all of the local thermal cell energy acquired by the ND directly excites its TIR mode. In effect, TIR confines the acquired cell energy to the ND surface having a wavelength given by its circumference.
 
But how then may the ND infer local temperature in the living cell?
 
By QM, local cell temperatures are inferred by N-V spin-flips from thermal strains induced in the ND as only the temperature of the surface changes. Atoms in the interior of the ND do not increase in temperature, but the surface atoms do indeed follow the cell temperature. Unlike uniform thermal expansion predicted by classical physics, expansion of the ND surface  strains the interior N-V centers. Diamond noted for sensitivity to strain is therefore correlated by QM to the local cell temperature, the correlation of which cannot be deduced from the uniform ND temperatures predicted by classical physics.See PressRelease     .   

The Conclusions are;
Classical physics by assuming the atoms in NDs have heat capacity predicts uniform ND temperatures equal to the local cell temperature cannot induce the thermal strain at interior N-V centers required by QM, and
QM by negating the heat capacity of the atoms in NDs precludes temperatures within the ND from following local cell temperature. But QM by confining temperature changes to the ND surface induces strain at interior N-V centers to allow correlation of optical transitions with local cell temperature, and
The ND measurement of temperatures in living cells based on the spin-flip optical transitions n mm-scale diamond crystals is questionable, and
Although QM allows NDs to measure cell temperatures, the toxicity of the EM radiation at UV frequencies emitted from the NDs is likely to damage DNA within the cell and should be considered in cell temperature measurements.  

Holy Grail of Catalysis 

 Since the 1980's, the oxidative catalysis of natural gas or methane to ethylene, aromatics, and hydrogen including propylene, benzene, toluene, and naphthalene has required oxygen at high temperatures > 1073 K. Beyond the low 50% carbon utilization efficiency, oxygen leads to the over oxidation product of CO2 which is not environmentally friendly. Today, many catalysts to avoid the oxidative conversion of natural gas have been proposed, but none are yet economically available.

Indeed, catalysts have long been considered the Holy Grail of chemistry. In the conversion of methane gas to ethylene, the Holy Grail is a catalyst that can activate the first C–H bond of methane without oxidation. But it is very challenging, if not impossible for any catalyst as 4.35 eV  is required to cleave the C-H bond while methyl radicals at 9.84 eV only form at the 12.6 eV ionization potential of methane.

Recently, Science contrary to the requirement of 12.6 eV ionization potential  reported the direct nonoxidative conversion of methane at the relatively high efficiency of  50% at 1363 K. The catalytic mechanism thought to explain the remarkable methane conversion efficiency without the formation of CO2 was based on passing the methane over a surface comprising single iron sites embedded in a silica matrix, the iron sites being 2-5 nm nanoparticles. Nanoconfinement of the iron sites in the silica surface was thought to initiate the catalytic generation of methyl radicals, followed by a series of gas-phase reactions.

Experimentally, the methyl radicals including the aforementioned methane reaction products were clearly observed with ultraviolet spectroscopy, Ibid.  Theoretical support of the series of gas-phase reactions at 1225 K was simulated with DFT by assuming the nanoconfinement mechanism somehow formed a pair of methyl radicals at 9.84 eV. DFT stands for density functional theory. The DFT simulation showed the methyl radical pair to combine in a strongly exothermic process to produce ethylene, but otherwise leads to all of the methane reaction products.

The problem is the DFT simulation may explain how methyl radicals once formed combine to produce the methane reaction products, but does not explain how the nanoconfnement mechanism of iron sites in the silica surface produces the 9.84 eV necessary to form the methyl radicals. A catalytic mechanism capable of ionizing the methane molecule at 12.6 eV is required.

QED induced radiation is proposed as the catalytic mechanism capable of ionizing the methane molecule. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. Finding basis in the QM requirement that the heat capacity of the atoms in the iron sites vanishes at the nanoscale, heat absorbed by the iron site from the silica matrix cannot be conserved by an increase in temperature. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Instead, conservation proceeds by the QED induced frequency up-conversion of the absorbed heat by the iron site to non-thermal EM radiation at its TIR confinement frequency. EM stands for electromagnetic and TIR for total internal reflection. QED induced catalysis by nanoparticles is not new. See ChinCatalysis   Indeed, the EM radiation having Planck energy beyond the UV is sufficient to ionize methane molecules that come near the iron site. See numerous QED applications on this web page.   

However, the QED induced catalytic conversion of methane by iron sites in a silica matrix may be significantly enhanced by flowing the methane through a cylindrical reactor provided with a removable liner comprising a nanoscale iron coating on a silica substrate, the substrate having a thickness of a few 10s of microns as shown the thumbnail. The liner may be formed by rolling-up a flat geometry where it is more convenient to control the nano coating thickness. A surface heater supplies the heat Q to the nanoscale iron coating, but by QM the nano coating cannot increase in temperature. In are:stead, QED induces the heat to be converted to EM radiation that ionizes the methane to produce the methyl radicals that initiate the formation of ethylene. See   PressRelease   .

Conclusions are:

1. The catalytic nature of nanoparticles by QED induced radiation is not new. The QM restriction of vanishing heat capacity of atoms in nanoparticles requires the conservation of any form of absorbed EM energy by the emission of QED radiation that enhances chemical reactions.   .

2. QED induced radiation based on QM having the capability of ionizing natural gas explains the remarkable efficiency in catalytic surfaces comprising iron nanoparticles in a silica matrix is indeed the Holy Grail of catalysis..

3. By QED radiation, conversion efficiency may be significantly improved by flowing natural gas through a cylindrical reactor provided with a removable liner comprising a nanoscale iron coating on a silica substrate, although other more suitable materials may be used. The QED radiation wavelength depending on the thickness of the nano coating may be tailored to excite the desired quantum state of the flowing gas molecules simply by providing a set of liners with differing nano coating thicknesses. 

 

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