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Thought for Us


The important thing is to never stop questioning


A. Einstein


The important thing is not to stop questioning.
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Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html
Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html
Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html
Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html






Superlens by transformative optics or QED?


In conventional optics, image quality depends on the diffraction limit. Recently, transformative optics using a superlens was proposed to restore image quality below the diffraction limit, the restoration not possible with conventional optics. Currently, the superlens is thought explained by evanescent waves in meta-materials having negative permittivity in contact with a dielectric with a permittivity of equal and positive sign, although a superlens of nanoscale noble metals, e.g., silver films obviates the need for complex permittivity matching.
   
Regardless, the existence of thermally driven evanescent waves in near-field heat transfer is questionable because QM precludes temperature fluctuations in nanoscale films. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Hence, evanescent waves that cannot pass through a superlens of a nanoscale silver film can not explain the enhanced image quality.

In this regard, sub-diffraction-limited imaging in the superlens is proposed to be a natural consequence of QED induced EM radiation, i.e., light is created in the nanoscale silver film upon the absorption the light in  the diffraction limited P* image. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but differs from the complex relativistic QED by Feynman and others. Briefly stated:

QED conserves heat supplied to a superlens absent heat capacity by creating light having half-wavelength  λ /2 = nd, where n and d are the refractive index and thickness of the silver film.    
 
For PMMA having n = 1.5 illuminated with UV at 365 nm, the diffraction-limited wavelength P* for resolving periodic structures [3] is, P* = 365/1.5 = 243 nm, below which periodic spaced structures cannot be resolved. The superlens of a silver film interposed between the PMMA and the photoresist absorbs the energy of light in the diffraction-limited image P*. Since QM precludes temperature changes in the nanoscale silver film, the energy of the light in the P* diffracted image is conserved by the emission of light at wavelength λ = 2 nd, where n is the refractive index of silver at wavelength P*. Unlike evanescent waves that cannot pass through the silver film, QED induces the silver films having thiickness d = 35 nm to emit light at sub-diffraction wavelengths λ that etches the photoresist. For silver at 243 nm having n = 1.28, QED produces the sub-diffraction-limited resolution at λ = 89 nm consistent with that shown in the above Figure. See  Paper and Presentation
 



GM Food: A Crime against Humanity?



The causal link between GM food and human health is proposed to be the scrambling of genes in DNA by low-level UV radiation upon ingestion of included adjuvant NPs. GM stands for genetically modified and NPs for nanoparticles. Modern agriculture depends on controlling weeds by spraying Roundup containing Glyphosate on crop fields. To enhance the penetration of the Glyphosate through plant leaves, NPs of POEA are included in Roundup, but the NPs also enter the food crop.

Upon ingestion, the NPs in the gut convert body heat into low-level UV radiation a known of DNA damage. If the DNA is repaired by the immune system, there is no problem. But for some people lacking iimmunity, cancer, birth defects, autism, and other health problems are likely to develop.

The UV radiation from NPs is based on quantum mechanics thereby supporting the fact experiments for decades have shown NPs damage the DNA. Yet NPs are planned to enhance future GM food supplies raising the question of whether the GM food industry is guilty of committing a crime against humanity by altering the DNA of people in the world. Moreover, the complicity of Nobel Laureates who supported the GM food industry in refuting the Greenpeace campaign against GM food is discussed. See Paper


A causal relation between GM foods and Cancer


Nanotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials. Because of quantum size effects and large surface area to volume ratio, nano materials have unique properties compared with their larger counterparts. Nanotoxicology is a branch of bionanoscience which deals with the study and application of toxicity of nanomaterials. Nanomaterials, even when made of inert elements like gold, become highly active at nanometer dimensions. Nanotoxicological studies are intended to determine whether and to what extent these properties may pose a threat to the environment and to human beings.  
 
Indeed, nanotoxicology studies of NPs in GM foods is often correlated with human health problems including cancer and birth defects. NPs stand for  nanoparticles and GM for genetically modified. However, the causal relation between NPs and human health problems is not understood.  
 
In this paper, NPs of glyphosate used in weed killers that aid in penetrating plant leaves enter the crop and upon human ingestation in the gut produce low-level UV radiation that damages nearby DNA, the scrambled genes eventually leading to a myriad of health problems. See Abstract


Dark Matter as Redshift in Cosmic Dust


Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) experiments suggesting dark matter does not exist are consistent with the argument that the long-standing galaxy rotation problem may be resolved without the need for dark matter if the redshift measurements giving the higher than expected galaxy velocities are corrected for the  redshift in cosmic dust. Because of the ubiquity of cosmic dust, all velocity measurements in astronomy based on redshift are most likely overstated, e.g., an accelerating Universe expansion need not exist if data showing supernovae brighter than expected based on the redshift/distance relation is corrected for the redshift in dust.
 
Today, cosmology is of great interest with regard to dark matter and Universe expansion, both relying on galaxy velocities computed by the Doppler Effect using the usual redshift measurements. Given that cosmic dust affects the redshift measurements, the following conclusions are made.
 
Dark Matter

The spiral galaxy M31 has a flat velocity profile from the bulge to the edge while Newtonian mechanics give a decreasing velocity with radius. By QED redshift, the rotation problem is resolved. The M31 spectra of galaxy light in an edge-on view gives nearly constant redshift along the radius because of about same volume of cosmic dust between the galaxy and the observer. Therefore, the Doppler effect gives the flat velocity profile. What this means is Newton’s equations are valid provided corrections are made for cosmic dust. In effect, the existence of dark matter is highly unlikely.

Prior to the WIMP search for dark matter by LUX, the MOND theory based on spatially dependent gravitation force – laws was considered the leading explanation of dark matter. MOND stands for modified Newtonian dynamics. For spiral galaxies, MOND does reproduce the galaxy rotation curves. But for elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, galaxy clusters, and larger-scale structures, MOND does not fit observations. Moreover, MOND also requires dark matter. Instead of just using WIMP to explain observations throughout the Universe, MOND requires both spatially dependent WIMPs and gravitational-force laws, an unlikely proposition given the inability of LUX to find WIMPs.
 
Interestingly, the presence of dark matter has been inferred by kinematic measurements of redshifted star positions. However, if the kinematics is based on actual star positions excluding redshift, dark matter is insignificant consistent with the corrections for QED redshift.
 
More exotically, there is still no compelling evidence that PBHs provide dark matter. PBH stands for primordial black holes. However, standard BHs known to exist may be used to assess PBHs, but even this is questionable. BHs stand for black holes. To determine the mass of a standard BH, the velocity of orbiting stars again rely on redshift measurements. However, the star velocities may be only a few hundred km/s that by the Doppler Effect correspond to Z < 0.005. Therefore, high precision spectroscopy is required to resolve the redshift wavelength which may only be a fraction of a nanometer. Therefore, the extension of large masses predicted in standard BHs to speculative PBHs needs to be critically reviewed for QED redshift in cosmic dust
 
Accelerating Universe Expansion
 
Since Hubble’s discovery of galaxy redshift, an expanding Universe has dominated astronomy. However, by correcting for the redshift in cosmic dust, Hubble might have allowed astronomy to proceed on the basis of Newtonian mechanics instead of Einstein’s general relativity of an expanding Universe that today is thought to explain a Universe with an accelerating expansion
 
In 2001, the most distant Type Ia SN having a redshift of Z = 1.7 was found brighter than expected and interpreted that it was closer to us than indicated by the redshift/distance relationship. SN stands for Supernovae. Later 10 more distant SN were all found brighter than expected. Since dust can only make SN dimmer, but never brighter, the brighter SN explained by accelerated Universe expansion.  
 
It is correct that cosmic dust can never make the SN brighter, but incorrect to conclude dust does not redshift SN light. The redshift/distance relationship assumes Z = ZV and not   Z = ZV + ZD, where ZV and ZD are the redshifts of the recession velocity and cosmic dust.  If redshift Z is not corrected for dust ZD, the brightness B(ZV) is greater than at B(ZV+ZD) consistent with that the SN appears is closer to us than expected from the distance based on the relationship with redshift. However, if the redshift Z is corrected for QED redshift ZD, the brightness B(ZV+ZD) is the same as expected B(ZV) from the redshift/distance relationship. What this means is the accelerating Universe is not physical, but rather an anomaly of QED redshift. See Paper and Presentation



Redshift-Space Distortions in Cosmic Dust


The Sexten Center for Astrophysics is holding a workshop on Luminous- and Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs/ULIRGs) on July 3 - 7. Of interest is the IR output of the galaxies is powered by dust absorption and re-emission of photons originating in bursts of star formation.

In this regard, galaxy light is shown to redshift upon absorption in NPs of cosmic dust. NPs stand for nanoparticles. In classical physics, the NP temperature increases upon absorbing galaxy light, but QM governs the nanoscale. QM stands for quantum mechanics. By QM, the atom heat capacity vanishes in NPs, and therefore the heat of galaxy light cannot be conserved by an increase in temperature. Instead, conservation proceeds by a simplified form of QED producing standing EM radiation inside the NP. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics and EM for electromagnetic. But the NP requires EM confinement for QED to convert the heat into standing EM waves, the EM confinement relying on the high S/V ratio of NPs. S/V stands for surface-to-volume. Because of the high S/V ratio of NPs, almost all of the heat of galaxy light is deposited in the NP surface thereby providing the momentary EM confinement of NP atoms necessary to create the standing EM radiation. Once the surface heat is depleted in creating the standing EM radiation, there no longer is any EM confinement and the standing EM radiation is emitted to the surroundings travelling  to the Earth as QED redshifted galaxy light. 

In this paper, QED redshift corrections for cosmic dust is extended to removing observational effects from spectroscopic measurements in clustering of galaxies in Redshift-Space Distortions (RSD). See Abstract



Disinfectant Drinking Bowl


SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Disclosed is a germicidal UV radiation device for disinfecting pathogens in drinking water without electricity using a hand-held bowl provided with a nanoscale silver coating that produces UV radiation powered only by body heat from the palm of the hand. The source of UV radiation embodies a bowl with a 100 nm silver coating at the water interface that converts body heat produces UVC radiation having a wavelength of about 254 nm that disinfects the water in the bowl of pathogens. Unlike anti-microbial coatings that require contact of the pathoge, the silver coating emits UVC radiation that disinfects pathogens at a distance in the water.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to the disinfection of water in a drinking bowl held in the palm of the hand disinfecting pathogens with UVC radiation source powered only by body heat. No electricity needed.

BACKGROUND and SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Contaminated drinking water is Universal.  WHO/UNICEF estimates almost 1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water. Even if bottled water is available, the consumer never knows if it is indeed safe. The most direct water disinfection is by boiling, but except for water boiling units in restaurants is not available to the individual consumer at the point of use. Unequivocally, water purification by filtration at the point of use is desirable. Water purifiers require pumping through ceramic or resin filters coated with silver NPs. NP stands for nanoparticle.  Silver NPs are known to provide antimicrobial action by damaging the DNA of bacteria, but NPs that come off the filter and enter the body also  damage human DNA that if not repaired, may lead to cancer.

In contrast, UVC disinfection of drinking water outside the body avoids the danger of cancer posed by NPs in filters. Currently, LEDs in the UVC are thought to provide the individual with point of use disinfection of drinking water, but still require a source of electrical power. LEDs stand for light emitting diodes.

UVC radiation can deactivate pathogens such as anthrax, smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, pneumonic plague, tularemia and drug resistant tuberculosis.

However, filters and LEDs require sources of electricity that are not always available, especially in the developing world.  Therefore, it is desirable to invent a device that produces UVC radiation to disinfect drinking water without an external source of electricity. In the instant invention, a photograph of the hand-held drinking bowl is shown above. Details of the invention are given in Disclosure

Solicitation of Disinfectant Bowl development is given in Freelancer

  
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