Quotations


Thought for Us


The important thing is to never stop questioning


A. Einstein


The important thing is not to stop questioning.
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Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html
Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html
Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html
Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html




Buchalter Cosmology Prize


The Buchalter Cosmology Prize was conceived on the premise that there are still fundamental gaps in our understanding of cosmology and that currently-accepted paradigms such as inflation and dark energy are incomplete, and possibly even incorrect descriptions of our Universe. It was created to stimulate ground-breaking theoretical, observational, or experimental work in cosmology that challenges, extends, or illuminates current models and/or helps explain the cosmic expansion from first principles. The ultimate goal is to help spur the formulation of a broader cosmological theory that explains current observations, puts forth testable new predictions, and fundamentally advances our understanding of physics. The Cosmology Prize will be awarded in January 2018
 
Today, cosmology is based on Einstein's expanding Universe beginning with Hubble's discovery of an expanding Universe from redshift measurements of receding galaxies. The notion of dark matter evolved because Newton's mechanics could not explain how clusters of galaxies are held together under the high velociites inferred by measurements of redshift. For a brief history of dark matter see PressRelease  
 
The instant Buchalter Cosmology paper argues cosmic dust causes galaxy velocities inferred by redshift measurements to be overstated, and if corrected for cosmic dust would show clusters of galaxies are held together by Newtonian mechanics. What this means is the Universe is not expanding, but rather is indeed static and dynamic as Einstein once thought.  See Paper.



The missing baryon problem is NOT solved !!!



Recently, the missing observable matter problem was claimed solved by a hypothesized cosmic web of optically thin filaments of dark matter between galaxies. The filaments are comprised of ionized WHIM containing the missing baryonic atoms.  WHIM stands for warm-hot intergalactic matter including free electrons produced upon ionization in million-degree temperature surroundings. Since the optically thin filaments are not observable, the WHIM atoms could be the missing mass in the observable Universe.  Prior research considered inferring missing mass  from UV and X-ray emissions, e.g., UV radiation emitted by WHIM and detected by the Hubble Space Telescope has accounted for about 50 % of the missing gas baryons, still leaving about 50 % of the missing mass unknown.  
 
Instead of X-ray and UV emissions, the search for the remaining 50 % of the missing mass relied on the SZE that occurs when CMB radiation passes through the hot ionized WHIM and interacts with free electrons.  SZE stands for the thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect and CMB for cosmic microwave background.  By the Compton effect, the SZE predicts the CMB photon gains a small amount of energy that corresponds to a  temperature change in the CMB temperature, the thermal emission of which measured with radio telescopes. In this way, the full 100 % of the missing mass was estimated from the free electron pressure and temperature.  
   
But the temperature change in the CMB temperature is only about 1 micro-Kelvin which is undetectable by radio telescopes. In order to get a detectable SZE, the temperature change from million pairs of galaxies  separated by similar distances were simply stacked together.  
 
Beyond stacked temperature changes have no physical meaning, there is a far more fundamental problem. Based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law, radio telescopes measure the thermal emission power fom macroscopic bodies, but  are basically free atoms isolated from neighbors, and as such are quantum entities following the Planck law of QM and not classical physics. QM stands for quantum mechanics.  
 
By the Planck law of QM, the kT heat capacity of isolated WHIM atoms and free electrons vanishes under the nanoscale EM confinement inherent in their high surface to volume ratios. Hence, temperature changes do not occur as illustrated in the above figure. Therefore, the stacking of CMB temperature changes to detectable levels is simply NOT valid to support the claim the missing baryon mass in the Universe was found. This is not to say the WHIM atoms are not the missing mass as mechanisms other than the SZE may be shown valid.  
 
In this regard, the WHIM atoms are proposed to be the missing baryons. The SZE is not invoked as fluctuations in the CMB do not exist by QM to be measured with radio telescopes. Lacking heat capacity, the intense heat from galaxies cannot increase temperatures of WHIM atoms, but rather is conserved by raising the core electron energy of the atom to X-ray levels.  Once K-edges are reached, the X-rays are emitted, the process repeated ad infinitum. Assuming one X-ray emission per WHIM atom, X-ray telescopes may be used to measure the number of WHIM atoms and account for the missing baryons in the Universe. See PressRelease        
 
In summary, QM by the Planck law precludes radio telescopes from measuring CMB temperature fluctuations  by the SZE as the heat capacity of WHIM atoms vanishes. Instead, QM conserves the intense heat from galaxies by raising the inner core electrons to K-edge levels whereupon the corresponding X-rays are emitted.  The missing mass of the Universe is indeed the WHIM atoms and are detectable by X-ray telescopes,and
 
Given WHIM atoms are the missing mass of the Universe, the  Hubble redshift suggesting dark matter exists is no longer a valid explanation for the galaxy rotation problem and the expanding Universe.  What this means is the Hubble redshifts are caused by another mechanism, e.g., see “Dark Matter does not exist if redshifts are corrected for cosmic dust” described  in the paper above submitted for the Buchalter Cosmology prize. 


Superlens by transformative optics or QED?


In conventional optics, image quality depends on the diffraction limit. Recently, transformative optics using a superlens was proposed to restore image quality below the diffraction limit, the restoration not possible with conventional optics. Currently, the superlens is thought explained by evanescent waves in meta-materials having negative permittivity in contact with a dielectric with a permittivity of equal and positive sign, although a superlens of nanoscale noble metals, e.g., silver films obviates the need for complex permittivity matching.
   
Regardless, the existence of thermally driven evanescent waves in near-field heat transfer is questionable because QM precludes temperature fluctuations in nanoscale films. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Hence, evanescent waves that cannot pass through a superlens of a nanoscale silver film can not explain the enhanced image quality.

In this regard, sub-diffraction-limited imaging in the superlens is proposed to be a natural consequence of QED induced EM radiation, i.e., light is created in the nanoscale silver film upon the absorption the light in  the diffraction limited P* image. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but differs from the complex relativistic QED by Feynman and others. Briefly stated:

QED conserves heat supplied to a superlens absent heat capacity by creating light having half-wavelength  λ /2 = nd, where n and d are the refractive index and thickness of the silver film.    
 
For PMMA having n = 1.5 illuminated with UV at 365 nm, the diffraction-limited wavelength P* for resolving periodic structures [3] is, P* = 365/1.5 = 243 nm, below which periodic spaced structures cannot be resolved. The superlens of a silver film interposed between the PMMA and the photoresist absorbs the energy of light in the diffraction-limited image P*. Since QM precludes temperature changes in the nanoscale silver film, the energy of the light in the P* diffracted image is conserved by the emission of light at wavelength λ = 2 nd, where n is the refractive index of silver at wavelength P*. Unlike evanescent waves that cannot pass through the silver film, QED induces the silver films having thiickness d = 35 nm to emit light at sub-diffraction wavelengths λ that etches the photoresist. For silver at 243 nm having n = 1.28, QED produces the sub-diffraction-limited resolution at λ = 89 nm consistent with that shown in the above Figure. See  Paper and Presentation

An audio MP3 file may be played together with the Presentation. Open both in separate windows and adjust the PPT to follow the audio.


Bio-imaging by Surface Plasmons


Plasmonics holds tremendous potential for NSs of Au and Ag having LSPRs at IR and VIS frequencies, the LSPRs exciting nearby molecules by fluorescence imaging. NS stands for nanostructure and LSPR for local surface plasmon resonance. However, extending imaging to proteins that are fluorescent in the UV is not thought possible because Au and Ag LSPRs are limited to wavelengths > 550 nm and > 350 nm, respectively. In this regard, Al is proposed as an alternative plasmonic material in the UV > 200 nm.
 
In this regard, clarification is required. Molecules excited by UV radiation do emit VIS radiation. But UV fluorescence differs as the VIS radiation is emitted not upon UV excitation, but rather by even shorter wavelength EUV radiation, the excited states of which are not directly returned to the ground state, but rather pass through many excited states that cause the VIS emission. EUV stands for extreme UV < 200 nm.  
 
Today, LSPRs in the VIS are unfortunately thought to be the only source of molecular fluorescence from metallic NS. Other EUV excited states of NS are ignored as evidenced by the fact that in the absence of external EUV sources, molecular fluorescence is observed near all metal NS suggesting the EUV is somehow being produced within the NS itself. Indeed, EUV from NSs has confounded the interpretation of enhanced fluorescence of nanoscale Al films.  
 
In this regard, the above figure shows the peak wavelengths of extinction efficiency for Al and Au to be 377 and 665 nm suggesting Al is better than Au for molecular fluorescence in the UV, although the data for Au < 400 nm is not presented. In EUV < 200 nm, NS of Au are far more absorbent than in the VIS suggesting there is no reason in the UV why Al should provide better imaging than Au and Ag.
 
Extinction efficiency of LSPRs is based on classical Mie theory that assumes NSs do not alter the frequency of EM radiation upon absorption. But QM governs the nanoscale and not classical physics. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Because NSs have high S/V ratios, EM radiation is absorbed in the NS surface thereby placing interior atoms under high EM confinement that by the Planck law of QM precludes atoms from having the heat capacity necessary to conserve surface heat by an increase NS temperature. S/V stands for surface-to-volume.
 
What this means is conservation then proceeds by simple QED creating EM radiation having half-wavelength  λ/2 = d standing across the dimension d of the NS. Complex QED advanced by Feynman is not required. Simply stated, simple QED creates EM radiation from surface heat having Planck energy E = hv. Here, h is Planck's constant and v is frequency, v = (c/n) / λ = c/2nd, where the velocity of light c is corrected for the slower speed in the solid state by the refractive index n of the NS. Unlike Mie theory, the frequency v may be red or blue shifted depending on the dimension d of the NS. But once the NS surface heat is expended in forming the standing waves, the EM confinement vanishes and the QED induced EM radiation escapes into the surroundings. See PressRelease
 
Fluorescence microscopy is commonly used for imaging live mammalian cells, but there are associated genotoxic effects with standard bio-imaging. To assess DNA damage, light emitted at violet [340–-380 nm], blue [460-–500 nm], and green [528–-553 nm] wavelengths all showed exposure during imaging to be genotoxic. Green expressing proteins showed DNA damage even in nearby cells not directly imaged. DNA damage from shorter wavelength EUV [100-200 nm] common to Deep-UV LSPR enhancements were not tested, but are expected to be far more severe.
 
In conclusion,
QM by the Planck law precludes heat or absorbed external UV radiation from being conserved by increasing the NS temperature. Instead, the NS conserves absorbed UV by simple QED producing EM radiation at EUV levels that excite the molecules by fluorescence.
 
Mie theory in NSs based on classical theory that assumes frequencies of EM radiation do not change upon absorption and re-emission is superseded by QM allowing simple QED to red or blue shift absorbed EM radiation depending on NS dimensions.
 
Fluorescent bio-imaging damages DNA and exposures should be limited


Integrative Cancer Science and Therapeutics (ICST) is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal interested in attracting high-quality original research and reviews that present or highlight significant advances in all areas of cancer and related biomedical science. The Journal is concerned with basic, translational and clinical research, across different disciplines and areas, enhancing insight in understanding, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The journal also prioritizes clinical trials evaluating new treatments, accompanied by research on pharmacology and molecular alterations or biomarkers that predict response or resistance to treatment.

The recent controversy between Greenpeace an Nobel Laureates over the health problems in GM food prompted the proposal that the causal link between birth defects, autism, and cancer is the consequence of DNA damage from low-level UV radiation from NPs in GM food prompted the ICST article.
 
"Cancer by UV radiation form nanoparticles in GM food"

Indeed, we ingest large quantiiies of NPs on a daily basis in the GM food we eat. But if the DNA damage by NPs is repaired by the immune system of the individual, it is self-evident health problems do not occur. However, not all individuals are so lucky and are subject to birth defects. autism, and cancer.

What can be done?

 
The PONT conference will address the cardinal issues of the dark universe today, gathering a selected number of scientists working in cosmology and particle physics in the inspiring and monumental setting of Avignon. There will be a limited number of review talks by leading experts in each field and selected contributed talks, fostering thorough debates. Some time will be allocated to discussion sessions. My contribution addersses the issue of DarkMatter:
 
"Cosmic Dust and Dark Matter"
 
and argues DarkMatter does not exist. See Paper



GM Food: A Crime against Humanity?



The causal link between GM food and human health is proposed to be the scrambling of genes in DNA by low-level UV radiation upon ingestion of included adjuvant NPs. GM stands for genetically modified and NPs for nanoparticles. Modern agriculture depends on controlling weeds by spraying Roundup containing Glyphosate on crop fields. To enhance the penetration of the Glyphosate through plant leaves, NPs of POEA are included in Roundup, but the NPs also enter the food crop.

Upon ingestion, the NPs in the gut convert body heat into low-level UV radiation a known of DNA damage. If the DNA is repaired by the immune system, there is no problem. But for some people lacking iimmunity, cancer, birth defects, autism, and other health problems are likely to develop.

The UV radiation from NPs is based on quantum mechanics thereby supporting the fact experiments for decades have shown NPs damage the DNA. Yet NPs are planned to enhance future GM food supplies raising the question of whether the GM food industry is guilty of committing a crime against humanity by altering the DNA of people in the world. Moreover, the complicity of Nobel Laureates who supported the GM food industry in refuting the Greenpeace campaign against GM food is discussed. See Paper
and Presentation Also, a  MP3 file of the presentation is available. Play the MP3 file by adjusting the presentation to follow the audio.


Validity of Equipartion Theorem in MD

 
In MD, the equipartion theorem gives the temperature of the atom in terms of its kinetic energy. MD stands for molecular dynamics. When a molecule is heated, MD assumes all atomic motions are excited simultaneously. Recently, the RIXS method shows the X-ray photon energy may be tuned to excite vibrations of a type of atomic motion, e.g., tuning X-ray photon energy in resonance with one selective state induces symmetric stretching motion; while tuning to another state excites the bending motion. RIXS stands for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy. This is significant as chemical reactions need not be initiated by temperature, but rather by X-ray emission. Similar to RIXS, X-rays produced in heating atoms induce vibrational motion to initiate chemical reactions is an attractive alternative to temperature driven atomic motion, especially if temperatures cannot occur.
 
But how do heated atoms emit X-rays? 
 
Heating of atoms in molecules creates X-rays instead of increasing temperature. MD based on the classical equipartition theorem is thereby superseded by QM that by the Planck law denies the atom the heat capacity to increase in temperature. QM stands for quantum mechanics.  X-rays are created by QED having Planck energy E = hv. Here, h is Planck’s constant and v is frequency, v = c/2nd, where c is the velocity of light and n the refractive index of the atom. At X-ray frequencies, n = 1. Hence, colloidal gold atoms having d = 288 pm produce X-rays having E = 2.2 keV. See PressRelease
 
X-ray emission by atoms makes the validity of MD simulations based on the equipartition theorem problematic. Based on classical physics, MD assumes heating a molecule increases the thermal energy of the atom that is converted to its kinetic energy causing the vibrational motion of atoms. But QM governs atom motion and not classical physics.
 
The classical equipartion theorem in MD is depicted above. However, the equipartition theorem for a molecule of N atoms is not valid as the kinetic energy  < KE > = 3 N (KbT) / 2 cannot depend on the temperature T of the atoms as KbT of the atom vanishes by QM. 
 
In conclusion,
 
X-ray excitation by RIXS offers a method for controlling chemical reactions, but more fundamentally suggests atoms in molecules heated in a thermal bath intract with each other by X-rays and not temperatures.
 
Classical physics by the equipartition theorem assumed in traditional MD to derive atom motions based on temperature is not valid and requires modification for vanishing heat capacity required by QM.
 


MD by X-rays?


Organized by Division of Computational and Theoretical Chemistry of the European Association of Chemical and Molecular Sciences, the 11th European Conference on Theoretical and Computational Chemistry will be conducted in Barcelona from September 4 to September 7, 2017.
 
By the equipartition theorem, MD assumes heating a molecule increases the temperature of the atoms that is converted to their momenta causing the vibrational motion of atoms, the changes in atomic positions initiating chemical reactions. However, the Planck law of QM precludes any increase in atom temperature because the heat capacity of the atom vanishes under the EM confinement induced by their high surface-to-volume ratios. QM stands for quantum mechanics.
 
Recently, RIXS has been tuned to excite specific types of vibrational motion, e.g., X-ray photons can be tuned to symmetric stretching while other tunings excite bending modes. RIXS stands for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy. This is significant as chemical reactions need not be initiated by thermally induced changes in atom positions, but rather by X-rays, especially since temperatures in atoms are precluded by QM. See  Abstract and Press Release

Vibrational control of atoms by X-rays makes MD simulations based on the equipartition theorem problematic. Modifications to MD consistent with QM are presented See  Presentation


 
2nd Global Conference on
 
Applied Computing in Science and Engineering
 

 ACSE2


The ACSE2 Conference is to be held at Las Palmas University on 26th to 28th July in the Canary Islands, Spain. The ACSE2 has the objective of creating an international forum for academics, researchers and scientists from worldwide to discuss results and proposals regarding to the important issues related to Applied Computing in Science and Engineering.

In this regard, the issue of the paradigm of the equipartition theorem in MD that controls the vibration of atoms in a molecule by the average temperature of chemically reactant molecles.is proposed superseded by X-rays created in atoms by QED induced radiation. The Abstract, Presentation and Paper are extensions of the above MD by X-rays presentation at EUCO-TCC in Barcelona.

An audio MP3 file is available to play of the PPT presentation. Open the MP3 and PPT files in separate windows and adjust the PPT to follow the MP3 audio.

In order to be correct, the above "MD by X-rays?" paper was revised to:

"MD by Quantum Mechanics"

Traditional MD simulations of chemical reactions with temperatures given by the equipartition theorem are problematic as atom temperatures are forbidden by the Planck law of quantum mechanics.  MD by QM proceeds without temperature with thermal effects replaced by the  momentum of heat flow from IR and X-ray lasers by specifying the initial velocity of all atoms in a molecule.  IR lasers are preferred as X-ray requires synchrotrons which are  difficult to utilize in ordinary chemical reactions, but the IR frequencies must be continuously adjustable to allow tuning to the specific vibration mode of the molecule. See Paper
and Presentation 


X-ray Diffraction



Over a century ago, Debye and Waller explained the reductions in X-ray scattering peaks by atomic disorder created in the perfect lattice by thermal fluctuations. More recently, X-ray diffraction of 100 fs 800 nm optical laser pulse heating 160 nm Ge films showed reflectivity abruptly reduced from that expected by Debye-Waller suggesting the film loses crystalline order by rapid NT melting and not by thermal fluctuations. In the above figure, the abrupt reduction in reflectivity is shown to be prompt occuring in less than a few hundred femtoseconds which means the mechanism cannot be thermal in origin. Hence, the mechanism can only be NT or nothermal.  
 
In the X-ray diffraction using thin film samples, both Debye-Waller and NT melting depending on atom temperature are questionable because  the Planck law of QM precludes any increase in  atom temperatures, let alone high electron Te temperatures, because the heat capacity of the atoms through the film thickness vanishes under high EM confinement, the latter a consequence of the high surface-to-volume ratios that confine the heat absorbed heat to both film surfaces.  QM stands for quantum mechanics.  
 
Instead, QED conserves the surface heat in both surfaces by creating EM radiation having half-wavelength λ/2 = d standing across the thickness d of the thin film. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but is a simple form of the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feynman and others. By simple QED, EM radiation is created from surface heat having Planck energy E = hv, i.e.,  h is Planck’s constant and v is frequency, v = (c/n) / λ = c/2nd, where the velocity of light c is corrected for the slower speed in the solid state by the refractive index n of the thin film.
 
Since QED induced EM radiation in thin films having d < 100 nm is sufficient  for photoionization, the  electron loss > 11%  in the sample causes the prompt reduction in reflectivity observed. NT melting does not occur, and instead, the disorder of charged solid atoms in a loosely bound state of Coulomb repulsion mimics melting. Thicker samples follow the same trend, but electron loss is reduced. Moreover, all lower thin film quantum states, including the surface plasmon resonances commonly observed in the VIS and NIR, are excited by fluorescence. See diverse QED applications at http://www.nanoqed.org , 2010-2017.
 
In conclusion, QM by the Planck law precludes thermal fluctuations in thin films by Debye-Waller as the source of atomic disorder in X-ray diffraction. Similarly QM denies NT melting based on electron-phonon coupling and homogenous nucleation in superheated solids.  
 
Observations of both reductions in X-ray scattering peaks and reflectivity in thin films is caused by atomic disorder from the simple QED conversion of heat absorbed from exciting laser and X-ray pulses into EM radiation that ionizes the film atoms.
 
NT melting by electron-phonon coupling based on ab-initio MD simulations that admit to temperature changes contrary to the Planck law need to be reviewed.

See PressRelease


QED induced X-ray Cancer Treatment

Recently, gold NPs adjacent cancer tumors are found to enhance necrosis by taking advantage of the increased absorption of gold compared to soft tissue. NPs stand for nanoparticles having dimensions < 100 nm. However, the high absorptivity of gold is of little consequence as little if any X-rays are absorbed in NPs. Indeed, X-ray absorption of gold NPs in water is shown to be negligible and almost totally dominated by the far larger dimensions of the water surroundings.

What this means is X-ray absorption in gold NPs is not the cause of cancer necrosis, but rather necrosis is somehow caused by the heating of NPs from the X-rays absorbed in the surrounding water perhaps explaining the current discrepancy in the LEM between X-ray doses and observed cancer cell necrosis,

Currently, NP temperatures are of great controversy. Absorption cross sections at the incident power levels typical of RF-GHZ experiments show increases in temperature cannot occur in NPs. In contrast, simulations [3] based on classical physics have claimed temperature changes of 30 – 40 °C occur consistent with liver cancer cell experiments after targeting those cells with gold NPs and exposure to RF fields, but QM governs the nanoscale. QM stands for quantum mechanics.

QM given by the Planck law precludes any increase in NP temperature let alone 30 - 40 C because the heat capacity of the NP atoms vanishes as the high surface-to-volume ratios of NPs confine the heat from the surroundings to the NP surfaces. EM stands for electromagnetic. Instead, QED momentarily creates EM radiation having half-wavelength λ/2 = d standing across the diameter d of the NP. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but is a simple form of the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feynman and others.

Since the standing EM radiation from the UV to X-rays is created from the NP surface heat, the EM radiation propagates into the surroundings once the surface heat vanishes. Only heat from the surroundings produces the EM emission. See the above figure. The QED radiation has Planck energy E = hv in the UV and beyond that damages the DNA halting the growth of the cancer cells by precluding reproduction. Here, h is Planck's constant and v is frequency, v = (c/n) / λ = c/2nd, where c is the velocity of light and n the refractive index of the NP.

Given that cancer necrosis may only occur as gold NPs are heated upon absorption of X-rays in surrounding water while DNA damage is usually thought to occur at UV levels from 3 to 8 eV, the Planck energy E of the QED radiation for gold NP having index n = 1.5 and diameters d from 1 to 100 nm is presented in PressRelease  The UV-C level of 254 nm having Planck energy E = 4.88 eV produced in 85 nm gold NPs corresponds to the formation of the pyrimidine dimers that block DNA replication in all living systems.

For NPs to create X-rays, QED requires NPs < 1 nm. But even the 85 nm NPs produce X-rays because QED radiation charges all NPs positive as electrons are lost by the photoelectric effect. Coulomb repulsion between positive charged atoms then fragments the NP into smaller and smaller fragments with increasing EM emission frequency until the fragments < 1 nm are formed whereby X-rays are produced.

In conclusion, classical physics as the traditional method for estimating NP temperatures under X-ray radiation are not valid. QM governs the nanoscale.

QM requires the heat capacity of atoms in NPs vanish denying conservation of heat from X-ray induced heating of the surrounding water by an increase in temperature.

Instead, QED conserves the heat from X-ray induced heat in the surrounding water by creating EM radiation inside the NPs instead of increasing their temperatures. However, the EM radiation charges the atoms by removing electrons which induces Coulomb repulsion between all atoms forming a state of hydrostatic tension that fractures the NPs. Subsequently, the heated fragments fracture to produce even progressively higher frequency EM emission. Hence, the gold NPs generate their own source of X-rays.


Hyperthermia Cancer Treatment?


Hyperthermia cancer treatment is based on high temperatures from heat produced in exposing iron-oxide NPs to an alternating magnetic field. Classical heat transfer suggests there should not be any advantage to placing the NPs in the cell as the surface temperature of a NP should be close to that of its surroundings. However, magnetic heating is known to be far more effective in killing cancer cells than hyperthermia using a hot water bath.This disparity is explained by magnetically heated NPs having significantly higher surface temperatures. To confirm this, the NPs were coated with a temperature sensitive fluorescent polymer and placed in 20 ºC water. When the water was externally heated, the fluorescence intensity was not observed until temperatures reached about 35?°C. However, upon heating the NPs in a magnetic field, the fluorescence intensity was observed to increase immediately. Hence, the magnetic heating of the NP was concluded to have higher surface temperature than that of the water, thereby explaining the greater effectiveness of magnetic heating in killing cancer cells.
 
But there is a problem with this explanation..
 
Upon heating a magnetic NP, the Planck law of QM precludes any increase in NP temperature, surface or otherwise, because the heat capacity of the NP atoms vanishes under high EM confinement, the latter a consequence of the high surface-to-volume ratios that confines the heat absorbed from the magnetic field to the NP surface. QM stands for quantum mechanics..
 
The Planck law of QM at 300 K giving the average energy <E> of the atom similar to heat capacity as a function of the EM confinement wavelength λ is depicted in the above figure. Classical physics allows the atom to have heat capacity, depicted by the horizontal line from the macroscale beyond λ > 1000 microns to the nanoscale < 0.1 microns. QM differs by only allowing the atom to have heat capacity for   λ > 100 microns, otherwise the atom has diminished heat capacity. NPs of nanoscale dimensions with EM confinement wavelengths λ  < 0.1 microns are observed to have vanishing heat capacity .
 
The NP by lacking heat capacity cannot conserve magnetic heat absorbed in the NP surface by an increase in temperature. Instead, QED creates EM radiation from the surface heat having half-wavelength λ /2 = d standing across the diameter d of the NP. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but is a simple form of the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feynman and others. By simple QED, EM radiation is created from surface heat having Planck energy E = hv. Here, h is Planck's constant and v is frequency, v = (c/n)/ λ = c/2nd, where the velocity of light c is corrected for the refractive index n of the NP. The EM radiation excites all lower NP quantum states, including the surface plasmon resonances commonly observed in the VIS and NIR.  
 
Cancer necrosis from magnetically heated NPs does not occur by high temperatures, but rather by QED induced EM radiation. The EM radiation created with Planck energy E inside the NP excites all lower NP quantum states, e.g., the iron-oxide NPs having d = 52 nm and n = 2.9 are excited by QED to E = 4.1 eV at λ = 300 nm which is in the UV-B region known to induce necrosis by precluding DNA reproduction of cancer cells.  
 
In conclusion, cancer treatment by magnetically heated NPs does not occur by hyperthermia, but rather by QED induced EM radiation in the UV and beyond. See PressRelease


Causal relation between GM foods and Cancer



Nanotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials. Because of quantum size effects and large surface area to volume ratio, nano materials have unique properties compared with their larger counterparts. Nanotoxicology is a branch of bionanoscience which deals with the study and application of toxicity of nanomaterials. Nanomaterials, even when made of inert elements like gold, become highly active at nanometer dimensions. Nanotoxicological studies are intended to determine whether and to what extent these properties may pose a threat to the environment and to human beings.  
 
Indeed, nanotoxicology studies of NPs in GM foods is often correlated with human health problems including cancer and birth defects. NPs stand for  nanoparticles and GM for genetically modified. However, the causal relation between NPs and human health problems is not understood.  
 
In this paper, NPs of glyphosate used in weed killers that aid in penetrating plant leaves enter the crop and upon human ingestation in the gut produce low-level UV radiation that damages nearby DNA, the scrambled genes eventually leading to a myriad of health problems. See Abstract and Presentation
An audio MP3 file is available. Open each file in separate windows and follow the audio with the PPT.


Yellowing of Transparent Electrodes


TCEs allow light to be transmitted through solar cells and touch screens by forming the electrode necessary for operation. TCEs stand for transparent conductive electrodes. Currently, TCEs use indium tin oxide having low resistance and high transmittance, but if bent lose electrical characteristics.  Alternative  materials include silver NWs sprayed on polymers offering low-cost fabrication while maintaining electrical properties when subjected to mechanical deformation. NWs stand for nanowires.
 
However, silver NWs on polymer substrates like PET are found to yellow.  PET stands for polyethylene terephthalate. The yellowed image noticeably differs from the actual color and since image color is important, efforts have been made to eliminate yellowing.  One approach is to coat the silver NWs with hydrazine on the premise any ambient light absorbed by the NWs is not reflected. For silver NWs, SPRs occur in the violet ( 350 to 390 nm ) are thought to absorb ambient light up to 500 nm thereby allowing yellow light at ( 570 to 590 nm ) in the ambient to be reflected from the NW and observed. SPR stands for surface plasmon resonance.  
 
But silver NWs on a PET substrate do not appear orange ( 590 to 620 nm ) or red ( 620 to 750 nm ) even though all ambient light reflected beyond the yellow ( > 590 nm ) should also be observed.  Moreover, TCEs under normal operation lack a mechanism to excite the SPRs at VIS frequencies and molecular hydrazine in the IR suggesting SPRs and absorption of ambient light cannot be the explanation for TCE yellowing.
 
In this regard,  yellowing of TCEs is proposed caused by QED induced EM radiation at EUV levels produced in silver NWs from Joule heat. EUV stands for extreme ultraviolet. Since EM energy  in the EUV is greater than that for SPRs in the VIS and molecular hydrazine in the IR, excitation occurs by fluorescence as the EUV radiation is lowered to VIS and IR levels by radiationless processes. 
 
QED radiation theory is based on QM that precludes the atoms in NWs from having the heat capacity to conserve Joule  heat by an increase in temperature.  By the Planck law of QM, NWs having high S/V ratios place the NW atoms under high EM confinement thereby precluding the heat capacity necessary for NWs to increase in temperature. S/V stands for surface-to-volume.  
 
Since Joule heat cannot be conserved by increasing NW temperatures, QED conserves the surface heat in NWs  by creating EM radiation having half-wavelength λ/2 = d standing across the diameter d of the NW. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but is a simple form of the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feynman and others. By simple QED, EM radiation is created from surface heat having Planck energy E = hv, i.e.,  h is Planck’s constant and v is frequency, v = (c/n) / λ = c/2nd, where c is the velocity of light and n the refractive index n of the NW. Since the diameter d is nanoscale, the Planck energy E created in the NW is in EUV allowing the SPR modes in the VIS and molecular hydrazine in the IR to be excited by fluorescence. 
 
The figure above shows the EUV fluorescence for PET irradiated with UV laser radiation at 325 nm.  Although not identical to silver NWs, yellowing is observed in the tail of EUV fluorescence, but not orange and red light as would be predicted from reflection of ambient light. Nevertheless, UV radiation of PET may be extended in principle to NWs in PET by the argument:

"QED induces Joule heat in silver NWs having refractive index n = 1.5 to produce EM  radiation > 3.82 eV in NW diameters d < 108 nm. Typical silver NW diameters d vary from 20 to 150 nm. At the lower limit, say d = 20 nm, QED induces Planck energy E = 20.7 eV in the NW that by EUV fluorescence excites SPRs from ( 350 to 390 nm ) at ( 3.55 and 3.18 eV ) in the VIS and hydrazine in the IR at 4.3 microns." 
 
Classical physics that assumes NWs have heat capacity is not applicable at the nanoscale. Moreover, thermal heat loss from NWs by the Stefan-Boltzmann law  should be superseded at the nanoscale by QED induced EM radiation as NW temperatures are precluded by QM.  See PressRelease

Historically, Debye in 1912 created phonons to explain thermal conduction at the macroscale which correctly assumes the atoms have kT energy. Since then, phonons have been incorrectly extended to the nanoscale where temperatures do not exist by QM. Indeed, simple QED based QM does not rely on phonons as the mechanism for transferring surface heat into the NW because standing EM radiation  is promptly created in the solid state.  What this means is heat transfer by thermal conduction  that depends on temperature differences does not exist at the nanoscale. Instead, QED radiation transfers heat inside nanostructures by photon absorption and emission.
 


Dark Matter as Redshift in Cosmic Dust


Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) experiments suggesting dark matter does not exist are consistent with the argument that the long-standing galaxy rotation problem may be resolved without the need for dark matter if the redshift measurements giving the higher than expected galaxy velocities are corrected for the  redshift in cosmic dust. Because of the ubiquity of cosmic dust, all velocity measurements in astronomy based on redshift are most likely overstated, e.g., an accelerating Universe expansion need not exist if data showing supernovae brighter than expected based on the redshift/distance relation is corrected for the redshift in dust.
 
Today, cosmology is of great interest with regard to dark matter and Universe expansion, both relying on galaxy velocities computed by the Doppler Effect using the usual redshift measurements. Given that cosmic dust affects the redshift measurements, the following conclusions are made.
 
Dark Matter

The spiral galaxy M31 has a flat velocity profile from the bulge to the edge while Newtonian mechanics give a decreasing velocity with radius. By QED redshift, the rotation problem is resolved. The M31 spectra of galaxy light in an edge-on view gives nearly constant redshift along the radius because of about same volume of cosmic dust between the galaxy and the observer. Therefore, the Doppler effect gives the flat velocity profile. What this means is Newton’s equations are valid provided corrections are made for cosmic dust. In effect, the existence of dark matter is highly unlikely.

Prior to the WIMP search for dark matter by LUX, the MOND theory based on spatially dependent gravitation force – laws was considered the leading explanation of dark matter. MOND stands for modified Newtonian dynamics. For spiral galaxies, MOND does reproduce the galaxy rotation curves. But for elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, galaxy clusters, and larger-scale structures, MOND does not fit observations. Moreover, MOND also requires dark matter. Instead of just using WIMP to explain observations throughout the Universe, MOND requires both spatially dependent WIMPs and gravitational-force laws, an unlikely proposition given the inability of LUX to find WIMPs.
 
Interestingly, the presence of dark matter has been inferred by kinematic measurements of redshifted star positions. However, if the kinematics is based on actual star positions excluding redshift, dark matter is insignificant consistent with the corrections for QED redshift.
 
More exotically, there is still no compelling evidence that PBHs provide dark matter. PBH stands for primordial black holes. However, standard BHs known to exist may be used to assess PBHs, but even this is questionable. BHs stand for black holes. To determine the mass of a standard BH, the velocity of orbiting stars again rely on redshift measurements. However, the star velocities may be only a few hundred km/s that by the Doppler Effect correspond to Z < 0.005. Therefore, high precision spectroscopy is required to resolve the redshift wavelength which may only be a fraction of a nanometer. Therefore, the extension of large masses predicted in standard BHs to speculative PBHs needs to be critically reviewed for QED redshift in cosmic dust
 
Accelerating Universe Expansion
 
Since Hubble’s discovery of galaxy redshift, an expanding Universe has dominated astronomy. However, by correcting for the redshift in cosmic dust, Hubble might have allowed astronomy to proceed on the basis of Newtonian mechanics instead of Einstein’s general relativity of an expanding Universe that today is thought to explain a Universe with an accelerating expansion
 
In 2001, the most distant Type Ia SN having a redshift of Z = 1.7 was found brighter than expected and interpreted that it was closer to us than indicated by the redshift/distance relationship. SN stands for Supernovae. Later 10 more distant SN were all found brighter than expected. Since dust can only make SN dimmer, but never brighter, the brighter SN explained by accelerated Universe expansion.  
 
It is correct that cosmic dust can never make the SN brighter, but incorrect to conclude dust does not redshift SN light. The redshift/distance relationship assumes Z = ZV and not   Z = ZV + ZD, where ZV and ZD are the redshifts of the recession velocity and cosmic dust.  If redshift Z is not corrected for dust ZD, the brightness B(ZV) is greater than at B(ZV+ZD) consistent with that the SN appears is closer to us than expected from the distance based on the relationship with redshift. However, if the redshift Z is corrected for QED redshift ZD, the brightness B(ZV+ZD) is the same as expected B(ZV) from the redshift/distance relationship. What this means is the accelerating Universe is not physical, but rather an anomaly of QED redshift. See Paper and Presentation


Invalidity of 21 cm line in Dark Matter



The W-F effect couples the spin temperature of neutral hydrogen to the Ly-a excitation of the 21 cm line of hydrogen at 1420 MHz. W-F stands for Wouthuysen-Field and Ly-a for Lyman-alpha photons. Most of the hydrogen in the Universe is in the ground state where the electron spins are parallel having a slightly higher energy than antiparallel spins, the relative occupation of the spin levels given by the spin temperature Ts. The W-F effect assumes hydrogen atoms by absorbing and re-emitting Ly-a photons may enter either of the two spin states.  Since the energy difference of the spin states is very small, a hydrogen atom can wait on average a few million years before undergoing the 21 cm emission. Even so, the large amount of hydrogen gas in the Universe means that enough hydrogen atoms are emitting 21-cm radiation that can easily be detected with radio telescopes.
 
The importance of the 21 cm line is it allows measurements of very high redshifts at the begining of the Universe. To look very far back in time, the 21 cm line is special in that it is not absorbed in cosmic dust which blocks optical light and limits redshift measurements of Lyman alpha photons. Moreover, the existence of dark matter inferred from the flat rotation curves of galaxies is supported by velocity measurements of hydrogen atoms in the gas clouds of the galaxies. However, there are problems.

The 21 cm line is measured with radio telescopes that effectively sense the thermal power P = kTs emitted based on the spin temperature Ts of the hydrogen atoms. But the Planck law of QM questions whether the thermal W-F effects can can exist in atoms. Radio telescope measurements based on thermal power P = kTs emitted by the hydrogen atom have no physical meaning as the atom is forbidden to thermally conserve the Ly-a photon because its heat capacity vanishes by QM. Moreover, galaxy velocities inferred from the thermal power P measured by radio telescope are highly questionable because of thermal noise. The signal to noise ratio of radio telescopes is very low suggesting noise is being interpreted as the 21 cm line as shown in the above figure. Non-thermal 21 cm emission is suggested, but radio telescopes only measure the power P of thermal and not non-thermal radiation.
 
Radio telescopes measuring the thermal power P emitted by the hydrogen atom are most likely measuring noise. Only optical telescopes can infer the non-thermal 21 cm emission, say by measuring the redshift of Ly-a radiation. But this is also problematic as cosmic dust permeates the Universe. For a Ly-a photon already redshift by the recession velocity of a galaxy, subsequent absorption in a dust particle increases the redshift. What this means is Ly-a redshift observed on Earth requires correction for the redshift in cosmic dust to avoid overstating galaxy recession velocities. See PressRelease
 



Redshift-Space Distortions in Cosmic Dust



The Sexten Center for Astrophysics is holding a workshop on Luminous- and Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs/ULIRGs) on July 3 - 7. Of interest is the IR output of the galaxies is powered by dust absorption and re-emission of photons originating in bursts of star formation.

In this regard, galaxy light is shown to redshift upon absorption in NPs of cosmic dust. NPs stand for nanoparticles. In classical physics, the NP temperature increases upon absorbing galaxy light, but QM governs the nanoscale. QM stands for quantum mechanics. By QM, the atom heat capacity vanishes in NPs, and therefore the heat of galaxy light cannot be conserved by an increase in temperature. Instead, conservation proceeds by a simplified form of QED producing standing EM radiation inside the NP. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics and EM for electromagnetic. But the NP requires EM confinement for QED to convert the heat into standing EM waves, the EM confinement relying on the high S/V ratio of NPs. S/V stands for surface-to-volume. Because of the high S/V ratio of NPs, almost all of the heat of galaxy light is deposited in the NP surface thereby providing the momentary EM confinement of NP atoms necessary to create the standing EM radiation. Once the surface heat is depleted in creating the standing EM radiation, there no longer is any EM confinement and the standing EM radiation is emitted to the surroundings travelling  to the Earth as QED redshifted galaxy light. 

In this paper, QED redshift corrections for cosmic dust is extended to removing observational effects from spectroscopic measurements in clustering of galaxies in Redshift-Space Distortions (RSD). See Abstract



Cosmic Dust and Dark Matter


The European Week of Astronomy and Space Science (EWASS) is the annual meeting of the European Astronomical Society (EAS). With more than 20 years of tradition, it is the largest conference for European astronomy.

In special session SS12 on Dust across the Universe, galaxy velocity measurements are claimed overstated because of QED redshift in cosmic dust above  that given by Doppler redshfit thereby  suggesting dark matter is necessary to hold the galaxies together. But if the measured redshift is corrected for QED redshift in dust, the galaxy velocities given by the Doppler effect are consistent with Newtonian mechanics. What this means is dark matter does not exist. Cosmic dust is also shown to explain other historical astronomical observations. See Abstract


Unidentified Infrared Emissions


Today, the UIE bands are thought caused by stochastically heated cosmic dust upon the absorption of single UV photons from hot stars having temperatures > 10,000 K, the dust comprising silicate and carbonaceous NPs < 100 nm that permeate the ISM. UIE stands for unidentified infrared emissions, NPs for nanoparticles, and ISM for interstellar medium. The UIE bands in the IR comprising 3.3, 6.2,7.7–7.9, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 µm correspond to the molecular vibrations of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the NPs.
 
Currently, the UIE are believed carried by NPs comprising PAH molecules and larger MAONS. PAH stands for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and MAONS for mixed aromatic/aliphatic organic nanoparticles. The interstellar IR spectra is based on the absorption of a single UV photon by a PAH or MAON as consecutive absorption of UV photons by the same NP in the emptiness of the ISM is extremely unlikely. Based on classical physics, the NP is assumed to have heat capacity allowing the absorbed UV photon to produce transient temperatures up to 1000 K, the thermal emission of which creating the observed IR spectra including the UIE bands.
 
But QM governs NPs – not classical physics. QM stands for quantum mechanics. By the Planck law of QM, NPs of PAH and MAONS because of their nanometer size have vanishing heat capacity and can only conserve a single UV photon by an infinite temperature jump - a physical impossibility, and therefore the UIE bands observed in IR spectra cannot be related to NP temperature.
 
Unable to conserve UV photons by thermal emission, the UIE bands are excited by nonthermal QED induced fluorescence in NPs. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but is a simple form of the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feynman and others. In simple QED, the NPs upon absorbing single UV including VIS photons from the ISM create EM energy within the NP that is lowered by radiationless processes to excite the UIE bands. But even single near IR photons absorbed by a NP may be induced by QED to excite far IR UIE bands.
 
Because of the high surface to volume ratios of NPs, the EM energy of the absorbed single IR,VIS or UV photons is confined to the NP surface, but QM precludes an increase in NP temperature. With the surface heat providing EM confinement of NP atoms, simple QED conserves the surface heat by creating EM radiation standing across the diameter d of NP having half-wavelength  λ / 2 = d. The EM radiation created has Planck energy E = hv. Here, h is Planck's constant and v is frequency, v = (c/n) / λ  = c/2nd, where the velocity of light c is corrected for the slower speed in the solid state by the refractive index n of the NP. Depending on the NP diameter, the Planck energy E excites UIE bands at  λ = 2nd by fluorescence. Since the NP surface heat is spent in forming the standing EM radiation, the EM confinement no longer exists and the UIE bands are emitted into the ISM.
 
QED radiation inducing NPs heated by single IR,VIS, or UV photons from the ISM to excite the UIE bands by fluorescence is illustrated in the above figure. Consider a NP of diameter d = 3.7 µm of silicate having n = 1.5 and a NP resonance λ = 2nd = 11.1 µm. Since the ISM photon energy cannot be less than that required to create a standing wave in the NP, only a single ISM photon having higher energy and wavelength λ < 11.1 µm may be absorbed, e.g., in the UV by a Lyman - a photon at 0.121 µm or in the VIS by a red photon at 0.7 µm or in the near IR at 0.9 µm, all wavelengths of which are redshift to fit inside the 11.1 µm diameter NP. By fluorescence, the 11.3 and 12.7 µm UIE bands are excited and emitted to the ISM where they may be absorbed in other NPs > 11.1 µm to excite UIE bands at 12.7 µm and other UIE bands in the far IR. See PressRelease
 
In conclusion, QM by the Planck law precludes the excitation of UIE bands formation by stochastic heating of NPs to high temperatures. Instead, the UIE bands are excited by nonthermal fluorescence of single IR, VIS, and UV photons absorbed in NPs of cosmic dust.
 
UIE emission spectra of cosmic dust does depend on the molecular composition of the NPs, e.g., PAH or MAONS. But the ISM absorption spectra does not. Rather, the absorption spectra of dust depends on the distribution of Planck energy of the dust NPs. Typically, NPs having Planck energy E = hc/2nd absorb in the UV or even the far UV. Specifically, the 0.22 µm bump in the UV absorption spectra corresponds to silica NPs having an average diameter 0.0733 µm, but is consistent with observations showing significant ISM absorption in the far UV.

Why the ISM shows significant absorption in the far UV is not answered by current astronomy.  By simple QED, the far UV absorption is explained by the divergence of the Planck energy E = hc/ 2nd of the NPs diverges as the diameter d vanishes.

Stochastic heating based on classical physics that assumes NPs have heat capacity is not applicable to NPs. Moreover, thermal heat loss by the Stefan-Boltzmann law valid for macroscopic particles should be superseded for NPs by nonthermal QED induced EM radiation.


Steam from Nanoparticles Heated by Sunlight


Light absorbing NPs immersed in water and illuminated by IR light are found capable of generating steam without the necessity of heating the entire fluid volume. The NP separations in water are unlikely to be less than a few microns suggesting the NPs are optically and thermally isolated from each other as EM confinement requires NP spacings less than the wavelength of the IR photons.  Moreover, the temperature increase at the surface of the NPs is known to not exceed nominal water temperatures and cannot produce steam. In this arrangement, light trapping by NPs has been proposed to produce steam as IR light is absorbed and scattered passing through a random ensemble of NPs, the validity of which is thought confirmed based on classical MC simulations. MC stands for Monte-Carlo.  
 
But QM governs the nanoscale and not classical physics. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Classical MC assumes the NPs have heat capacity, or kT energy. By the Planck law of QM,  however, NPs having high S/V ratios place the NP atoms under high EM confinement thereby precluding the heat capacity necessary for NPs to increase in temperature. S/V stands for surface-to-volume.  Hence, NP temperatures cannot increase above nominal water temperature that suggest MC simulations of steam generation from IR radiation in NP dispersions are meaningless.  
 
But if so, how do NPs conserve IR laser heat?   
 
Since IR laser heat cannot be conserved by increasing NP temperatures, QED conserves the surface heat in NPs  by creating EM radiation having half-wavelength λ /2 = d standing across the diameter d of the NP. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but is a simple form of the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feynman and others. By simple QED, EM radiation is created from surface heat having Planck energy E = hv, i.e.,  h is Planck’s constant and v is frequency, v = (c/n) / λ  = c/2nd, where the velocity of light c is corrected for the slower speed in the solid state by the refractive index n of the NP. Once the NP surface heat is expended in forming the standing waves, the EM confinement vanishes and the QED induced photon escapes into the water.
 
Application
The application of QED induced EM radiation in NPs having d < 100 nm is illustrated above shows the wavelength dependence of the absorption of water. The inset shows the IR laser directed downward in the direction of gravity onto the surface of liquid water causes a vertical temperature gradient that induces natural convection in the water  showing the NPs (black circles) to aggregate  at the air-water interface. IR laser heat absorbed by the NPs is shown to be induced by QED to produce EUV radiation. EUV stands for extreme ultraviolet.
 
The usual 80 nm silicate NPs have n = 1.5  produce UV at  λ = 240 nm which the thumbnail shows is far less absorbent in water than the IR at λ = 808 nm.  But the tests were performed with scattering NPs that are small with respect to wavelength of light and textured to be optically soft having n = 1. Hence, the scattering NPs emit EUV radiation at  λ = 160 nm. The figure shows water absorption in the EUV is 4 orders of magnitude greater than the IR at 808 nm. What this means is the IR heat absorbed by the NPs is very efficiently absorbed by water, thereby significantly increasing the local water temperature to explain the production of steam at the air-water interface. See  PressRelease  
 
Conclusions 
QM by the Planck law precludes absorbed IR laser heat from increasing NP temperatures. Instead, NPs conserve IR laser heat by QED inducing EM radiation standing across the
NP diameter. For scattering NPs, EUV radiation is produced that is efficiently absorbed in water allowed the formation of steam at the air-water interface.  
 
Unfortunately, the Planck law of QM now over a century old has been ignored today by the nanotechnology community. Indeed, the number of citations in exceeds 50,000 suggesting the spread of fake news that classical physics explains heat transfer in NPs, the consequence of which may have legal consequences for subsequent  health damages incurred, e.g., the use of NPs in the treatment of cancer by hyperthermia does not kill cancer by high temperature, but  rather by the UV emitted from the NPs which in and of itself causes collateral DNA damage that if not prepared by the immune system may lead to future cancers.   


Disinfectant Drinking Bowl


SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Disclosed is a germicidal UV radiation device for disinfecting pathogens in drinking water without electricity using a hand-held bowl provided with a nanoscale silver coating that produces UV radiation powered only by body heat from the palm of the hand. The source of UV radiation embodies a bowl with a 100 nm silver coating at the water interface that converts body heat produces UVC radiation having a wavelength of about 254 nm that disinfects the water in the bowl of pathogens. Unlike anti-microbial coatings that require contact of the pathoge, the silver coating emits UVC radiation that disinfects pathogens at a distance in the water.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to the disinfection of water in a drinking bowl held in the palm of the hand disinfecting pathogens with UVC radiation source powered only by body heat. No electricity needed.

BACKGROUND and SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Contaminated drinking water is Universal.  WHO/UNICEF estimates almost 1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water. Even if bottled water is available, the consumer never knows if it is indeed safe. The most direct water disinfection is by boiling, but except for water boiling units in restaurants is not available to the individual consumer at the point of use. Unequivocally, water purification by filtration at the point of use is desirable. Water purifiers require pumping through ceramic or resin filters coated with silver NPs. NP stands for nanoparticle.  Silver NPs are known to provide antimicrobial action by damaging the DNA of bacteria, but NPs that come off the filter and enter the body also  damage human DNA that if not repaired, may lead to cancer.

In contrast, UVC disinfection of drinking water outside the body avoids the danger of cancer posed by NPs in filters. Currently, LEDs in the UVC are thought to provide the individual with point of use disinfection of drinking water, but still require a source of electrical power. LEDs stand for light emitting diodes.

UVC radiation can deactivate pathogens such as anthrax, smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, pneumonic plague, tularemia and drug resistant tuberculosis.

However, filters and LEDs require sources of electricity that are not always available, especially in the developing world.  Therefore, it is desirable to invent a device that produces UVC radiation to disinfect drinking water without an external source of electricity. In the instant invention, a photograph of the hand-held drinking bowl is shown above. Details of the invention are given in Disclosure

Solicitation of Disinfectant Bowl development is given in Freelancer

  

Winful's Argument


The Hartman effect suggests superluminal velocities as the evanescent tunneling time tends to a constant for large barriers. With evanescent tunneling, the barrier is the gap between double prisms. When the prisms are in contact, the light passes straight through, but when there is a gap, the light may either tunnel across or follow the refracted path. Since the time for light to travel across large gaps is found to be the same as for short gaps, the Hartman effect has been interpreted to suggest the photons have crossed the gap with superluminal velocity.  
 
However, Winful argued non-propagating evanescent waves are virtual photons that do not propagate across the gap into the outside world, but over time accumulate energy until the barrier is breached. Once corrected for the delay time,  the light in the Hartman effect is not superluminal.  
 
Winful'’s argument is problematic. The accumulated energy of evanescent waves necessary to breach the barrier is STILL evanescent and cannot propagate across the gap. What this means is tunneling of photons through the double prism gap occurs by a more fundamental mechanism that converts non-propagating evanescent photons into propagating photons. Here, the mechanism proposed is QED tunneling, where QED is simplified form of the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feyman and others. See PressRelease and forthcoming OSA Paper.


The Eleventh International Congress on Engineered Material Platforms for Novel Wave Phenomena – Metamaterials 2017 at the Institut Fresnel of Marseille providing a forum to share metamaterials research in the engineering, physics, applied mathematics and material science communities. 
 
In the Paper:
 
"Superlensing by QED"
 
QED induced sub-diffraction-limited imaging is produced with a 35 nm nanoscale silver lens using the light from a  diffraction-limited image in a 40 nm PMMA spacer. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but is a simplified from the complex relativistic QED of light-mattter interaction by Feynman and others.

In the  Paper, the QED of thin films is extended to EUV lithography. Difficulties in extending Moore’s law to 13.5 nm may be traced to LPP lithography. LPP stands for Laser Produced Plasma. Based on classical physics, EUV light is currently produced from the atomic emission filtered from ionization of atoms at high temperature. LPP uses high power CO2 lasers to heat solid and gas targets that after reflection from the large 100 cm mirror is filtered to produce EUV. See  PressRelease
 
In contrast, QED induced EUV lithography based on QM offers a far simpler and inexpensive way to extend Moore’s law. The EUV source comprises an ordinary 10 cm spherical glass lens provided on the front surface with a 5 nm silver coating. A heater on the back surface allows heat to flow into the coating, but QM precludes any increase in the coating temperature. Instead, QED converts the heat into the coating to a steady EUV light source. Lasers are not required. See PressRelease


Nanotechnology and Dark Matter


BIT's 7th Annual World Conference on Nano Science & Technology is being held in Fukuoka from 24-26 October. Nano S&T of the very small and the search for dark matter are related by the continuing clash between classical physics and QM that began over a century ago. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Nanoparticles or NPs are found to exist everywhere in nanotechnology. But NPs are known not to obey classical physics by conserving heat by emitting EM radiation instead of the usual increase in temperature. This is so, as the Planck law of QM precludes temperature fluctuations in NPs as the heat capacity vanishes in the quantum sized NPs.

But how is this related to dark matter?

In 1926, Hubble discovered the Universe was expanding based on redshift measurements of light from recessing galaxies. But cosmic dust NPs permeate the Universe and upon absorbing the galaxy light on the way to the Earth cause an additional redshift above the Hubble redshift. Recession velocities are therefore overstated to the extent that to hold galaxy clusters together dark matter is thought necessary to exist. But if Hubble redshift is corrected for cosmic dust, dark matter need not exist as the galaxy clusters are simply held together by Newtonian mechanics.

Because of the ubiquity of cosmic dust, all astronomical velocity measurements based
on Hubble redshift are most likely overstated, e.g., the long-standing galaxy rotation problem and the current expanding and acelerating Universe may be resolved without the need for dark matter if the redshift velocities are corrected for cosmic dust.

In summary, classical physics that allows the atoms in quantum sized cosmic dust NPs to have the heat capacity to fluctuate in temperature has mis-led cosmology to an expanding Universe. Contrarily, QM argues the NPs do not increase in temperature, but rather redshift galaxy light thereby overstating galaxy velocities to the extent that astronomers think dark matter is necessary to keep the galaxies together. Hence, searches for dark matter should be discontinued in favor of redshift measurements of cosmic dust. See Abstract and PPT Presentation. A preliminary audio MP3 file is available. Open the PPT file and MP3 file in separate windows. Play the MP3 file and manually adjust the PPT accordingly.
 

WGC-2017 Hong Kong to Macao


BIT's 8th World Gene Convention-2017 (WGC-2017) will be held during November 13-15, 2017 in Macao, China. WGC-2017highlights new developments in the field of Gene, Biotechnology and Life Sciences. In this regard, the genotoxicity of GM foods is of great importance.  GM stands for genetically modified.
 
In GM food, modern agriculture controls weeds by spraying Roundup containing water and Glyphosate onto crop fields. To enhance Glyphosate penetration through weed leaves, POEA is usually included in Roundup. POEA stands for polyoxyethyleneamine. But weeds alone cannot be sprayed and the POEA enters the leaves of contiguous corn and soybean crops as an nano-emulsion of NP globules that finally reside in the plant crop. NP stands for nanoparticle. By classical physics, metabolic heat in the gut upon digestion of GM food increases the NP temperature. But QM differs. QM stands for quantum mechanics.
 
Indeed, the Planck law of QM precludes the atom from having the heat capacity under high EM confinement. Conservation of metabolic heat in NPs therefore cannot occur by an increase in temperature. But NP atoms are placed under high EM confinement because of high surface-to-volume ratios requiring heat to be absorbed in their suface. Surface heat is then conserved by creating UV radiation standing across the NP diameter.  But once surface heat in creating the UV is depleted, the EM confinement vanishes and the standing wave is free to enter the surroundings. Hence, genotoxicity of GM food is caused by DNA damage by UV radiation from NPs which if not repaired by the immune system may lead to birth defects, autism, and cancer. Indeed, the UV radiation from NPs explains DNA damage found in experiments over the past decade. Discussed is whether the genotoxicity of GM food in altering the DNA of the people in the world is  a crime against humanity. See Abstract
and Presentation


Hurricane modification?


Hurricanes Harvey and Irma caused major economic damage in the US. Recent research. Biogenic particles enhance the formation of CCN, but other factors also need to be considered. CCN stands for cloud condensation nuclei. Clouds strongly influence the incoming solar UV radiation, and therefore UV was thought to influence the formation of CCN. UV measurements with the sun positioned in front of and in the shadow of the cloud both showed a 3-fold enhancement of UV emission compared to the cloud-free background. What this suggests is the clouds are producing their own UV. If so,

How do clouds produce UV radiation?

By classical physics, CCN should not grow as temperature increases during condensation are offset by equal temperature decreases in evaporation. QM by the Planck law differs. QM stands for quantum mechanics. The Planck law precludes CCN < 100 nm from having the heat capacity to conserve the heat of condensation by an increase in temperature. Instead, simple QED conserves the heat of condensation by the emission of EM radiation without a temperature increase thereby allowing the CCN to grow by negating the need for subsequent evaporation. By the Planck law, the CCN heat capacity can only vanish under high EM confinement. But this naturally occurs with CCN having high S/V ratios as the heat is deposited in the CCN surface, thereby placing the internal CCN atoms under EM confinement over nanoscale dimensions. S/V stands for surface-to-volume.

Simple QED then conserves the surface heat by creating EM radiation having half-wavelength λ/2 = d standing across the diameter d of the CCN and so Planck energy E = hν is created having frequency, ν = (c/n) / λ = c/2nd, where the velocity of light c is corrected for the slower speed in clustered water molecules by the refractive index n of water. For n = 1.33, CCN emit UVC radiation at a diameter d = λ/2n ≈ 100 nm. Once the CCN surface heat is expended in creating the standing waves, the EM confinement vanishes and the QED induced EM radiation is emitted to the surroundings.

Simple QED that predicts growing CCN emit EM radiation is consistent with the UV irradiance measured from clouds, but is also consistent with UV absorption as the condensation of water was found to depend on the wavelength λ of incident UV radiation from 200 to 320 nm. Of note, CCN do not create high dipole moments in the UV, but in the EUV below 200 nm by CCN < 50 nm.

Of interest to hurricanes, condensation was first thought not to depend on exposure to air or oxygen, but was later shown that oxygen was crucial to water condensation consistent with the historic work of C.T.R. Wilson.

In summary, QED induced EUV radiation from CCN is a natural process in hurricanes that significantly enhances the condensation of water without the need of solar UV or cosmic rays. But,

Can the natural EUV enhancement of CCN be reduced?

Simply burning combustibles such as magnesium in the updraft of the hurricane would remove oxygen in the formation of CCN, but the chimney effect of higher air temperatures would increase the updraft. Seeding the hurricane with EUV absorbing iron nanoparticles that attach to water vapor molecules is conceptually ideal as the high dipole moments relying on the EUV would be quenched. However, molecules that absorb oxygen from atmospheric air are also encouraging.  See PressRelease

Given the extent of the updraft in a hurricane shown in the above figure, the removal of oxygen from the updraft of hurricanes may not be feasible, but EUV absorptive nanoparticles that attach to water vapor rising from the oceam offers some hope. PressRelease


T-lasers from water or metal films ?


Terahertz waves called T-rays have frequencies from 0.3 to 3 THz, 1 THz = 1012 Hz having wavelengths from 1000 to 100 microns. T-rays are able to pass through solids and produce images of the interiors of plastic and ceramic materials, but unlike X-rays are non-ionizing and do not damage DNA. Prior T-ray research was based on short-pulse NIR lasers irradiating thin targets of metal films and air plasmas. Recently,free-flowing water films are shown to emit T-rays from a 177 micron film of liquid water. However, the results could not be interpreted through existing mechanisms of T-ray generation. See PressRelease

In recent years, T-ray emission has been observed when metallic surfaces and nanostructures have been illuminated by ultrafast NIR laser pulses. Multiphoton photoelectron emission is thought to be the mechanism for T-ray emission, but the sequential combination of 3 or 4 NIR photons to ionize water is highly unlikely.

Is there a simpler T-ray mechanism?

Emission of T-waves is proposed caused by the simple QED conversion of laser heat under the EM confinement of nanostructures. In simple QED, the EM confinement is a natural consequence of nanostructures having high S/V ratios with dimensions < 100 nm. S/V stands for surface-to-volume and QM for quantum mechanics. What high S/V ratios mean is laser heat is deposited in nanostructure surfaces thereby placing internal atoms under EM confinement over nanoscale dimensions that by the Planck law of QM causes the heat capacity to vanish. Speculative multiphoton combinations of NIR photons is not required.

But water films having thickness d = 177 microns are not nanostructures with dimensions d < 100 nm. At 300 K, the Planck law shows the water atoms have almost full kT heat capacity, where k is the Boltzmann constant and T absolute temperature. Since NIR lasers create a plasma in water, the refractive index n ≈ 1 giving a T-ray wavelength λ = 2nd ≈ 354 microns and frequency v ≈ 0.85 THz. The above figure shows the water film at 354 microns only converts about 10% of the NIR laser heat into T-ray emission, the remainder lost in thermal heating. In Paper, simple QED is consistent with the peak of Curve B in Figure 2(c).

However, the water film under high laser heating creates a positive charged plasma because of the loss of electrons by the photoelectric effect. At this point, the water film is about to undergo a Coulomb explosion because of the repulsion from the positive charged atoms of the water molecules. Because of the obvious difficulties in creating a freely falling water film it may be desirable to to replace the water with a metal film having a refractive index n in the far IR close to unity. If so, the metal version of the T-ray laser would have the same 177 micron thickness to produce 0.85 THz T-rays. See PressRelease


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