Thought for Us
It doesn't matter how beautiful your theory is,
it doesn't matter how smart you are,
if it doesn't agree with experiment, its wrong.
R. P. Feynman
Topical Problems in Fluid Mechanics - 2015
The Bernoulli equation and nanochannels
Flow through nanochannels of CNTs is observed to be 2-5 orders of
magnitude higher than predicted by the Hagen-Poiseuille equation. CNT
stands for carbon nanotube. However, the disparity with experiment
cannot be explained by slip at the wall. In this regard, MD
simulations of liquid argon valid by QM show flow enhancement to
occur because the viscosity vanishes in nanochannels. QM stands for
quantum mechanics. See Press Release and Paper
Vanishing viscosity occurs because QED conserves the viscous heat in the nanochannel by creating EM radiation that ionizes the fluid molecules to produces a flow of charged atoms as depicted in the above figure. The charged atoms.under Coulomb repulsion separate more than usual to give a vanishing viscosity. QED induced charged flow in nanochannels should therefore approach rhe frictionless flow given by the Bernoulli equation.
The Bernoulli equation for the mass flow through nanochannels follows from the QED energy equation that excludes temperature changes as required by QM. Indeed, the Bernoulli equation provides a reasonable QM approximation to the flow in nanochannels that avoids the complexity of MD solutions. With the exception of water, the measured flow is close to but less than that predicted by the Bernoulli equation. See data in Paper on "The end of nanochannels"
The frictionless Bernoulli equation is far simpler than performing MD simulations, even if one sets aside the fact that standard MD programs give meaningless results because of their QM invalidity. However, if MD programs are corrected for QM, valid MD solutions for nanochannel flow may be obtained but still the MD cannot be justified compared to the utter simplicity of the Bernoulli equation. Press Release
QED Induced Water Purification
Currently, WHO/UNICEF estimates almost 1 billion people in the developing world do not have access to safe drinking water. Moreover, about 2 million childhood deaths have been attributed to water-borne diseases. Conventional water treatment is unfeasible because of costs. Lacking municipal water supplies, the water is collected from rivers or lakes and stored in containers for later use which may also be contaminated. The most direct way of purification is by boiling small quantities of water, but this requires a source of heat which, except for fire, is usually not available. Because it is not always convenient to build a fire, it is highly desirable to consider alternative low-cost methods for purifying water.
Unfortunately, there are no known low-cost alternatives to purifying water other than by boiling. However boiling has disadvantages because a source of heat is needed. One could envision focusing sunlight to boil small volumes of drinking water, but the purified water would only be available during daylight hours. If, however, portable electrical power is available, the water could be pumped through ceramic or resin filters coated with silver NPs. NP stands for nanoparticle. Silver NPs are widely known to provide antimicrobial action by damaging the DNA of bacteria, but NPs that come off the filter and enter drinking water also damage human DNA, that if not repaired, may lead to cancer. Regardless, NP coated filters are unfeasible because electrical pumping power is usually not available. In contrast, UV disinfection of drinking water occurs outside the body and avoids the danger of cancer posed by silver NPs, but is unfeasible as electrical power is generally not available and costly even if available.
The developing world needs an inexpensive way of purifying drinking water.
QED induced UV radiation using nano-coated drinking bowls is proposed as the mechanism by which drinking water is purified inexpensively without electrical power. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. QED induced purification is a consequence of QM that forbids the atoms in nano-coatings under TIR confinement to have the heat capacity to increase in temperature. QM stands for quantum mechanics and TIR for total internal reflection.
Disinfection occurs as the body heat from the hands of the person holding the drinking bowl is transferred to the coating as shown in the above figure. Because of QM, the body heat cannot increase the temperature of the coating as its heat capacity vanishes under TIR. Instead, the heat is conserved by QED inducing the heat to be converted to EM radiation. EM stands for electromagnetic. The TIR confinement only occurs as heat flows into the coating, i.e., absent body heat there is no TIR confinement and UV radiation. The TIR wavelength λ of the EM radiation is,
λ = 2 n d
where, n and d are the refractive index and thickness of the coating. Since the optimum UV wavelength range to destroy bacteria is between 250 and 270 nm, a zinc oxide coating having n = 2 requires the coating thickness d = 65 nm. Since human body heat is about 6 mW / cm2, and since UV water disinfection requires an intensity of 16 - 38 mJ / cm2, the drinking bowl disnifects water in 3 to 6 seconds. See Press Release. , Paper and Presentation
On November 6, the IUVA held a one-day symposium on the UV disinfection of water in the developing world at UNESCO-IHE in Delph, Netherlands. See Advertisement New developments in UV sterilization of water proposed LED sources as a replacement for mercury discharge. However, the water bowl UV disnfection of water is far more efficient than LEDs as no electrical power is required. Funding of water bowl research was discussed with attendees.
N-V Thermometry in LIving Cells
Unlike the bulk mm-scale diamond, QM denies the atoms in NDs the heat capacity to allow temperature changes to occur thereby refuting the claim that ND temperature can be measured from thermal strains in mm-scale diamond samples. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Thermal strains in NDs are therefore not the same as in the mm-scale crystals making the HD thermometry of living cells highly questionable.
QED induced EM radiation is proposed as the mechanism by which the local thermal energy of the living cell is conserved in NDs without temperature changes. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics and EM for electromagnetic. QED induced radiation is a consequence of QM that denies the atoms in NDs under TIR confinement to have the heat capacity to allow changes in temperature. TIR stands for total internal reflection.
Indeed, classical heat transfer of NDs shows uniform temperatures throughout that almost spontaneously follow the local cell temperature. QM differs. Since the ND temperatures cannot change by QM, the local thermal energy acquired from the cell may only be conserved by QED creating EM radiation in the ND having Planck energy E = hf, where h and f are Plancks constant and the TIR frequency of the ND. Since NDs have high surface to volume ratios, almost all of the local thermal cell energy acquired by the ND directly excites its TIR mode. In effect, TIR confines the acquired cell energy to the ND surface having a wavelength given by its circumference.
But how then may the ND infer local temperature in the living cell?
By QM, local cell temperatures are inferred by N-V spin-flips from thermal strains induced in the ND as only the temperature of the surface changes. Atoms in the interior of the ND do not increase in temperature, but the surface atoms do indeed follow the cell temperature. Unlike uniform thermal expansion predicted by classical physics, expansion of the ND surface strains the interior N-V centers. Diamond noted for sensitivity to strain is therefore correlated by QM to the local cell temperature, the correlation of which cannot be deduced from the uniform ND temperatures predicted by classical physics.See PressRelease .
The Conclusions are;
Classical physics by assuming the atoms in NDs have heat capacity predicts uniform ND temperatures equal to the local cell temperature cannot induce the thermal strain at interior N-V centers required by QM, and
QM by negating the heat capacity of the atoms in NDs precludes temperatures within the ND from following local cell temperature. But QM by confining temperature changes to the ND surface induces strain at interior N-V centers to allow correlation of optical transitions with local cell temperature, and
The ND measurement of temperatures in living cells based on the spin-flip optical transitions n mm-scale diamond crystals is questionable, and
Although QM allows NDs to measure cell temperatures, the toxicity of the EM radiation at UV frequencies emitted from the NDs is likely to damage DNA within the cell and should be considered in cell temperature measurements.
Holy Grail of Catalysis
Since the 1980's, the oxidative catalysis of natural gas or methane to ethylene, aromatics, and hydrogen including propylene, benzene, toluene, and naphthalene has required oxygen at high temperatures > 1073 K. Beyond the low 50% carbon utilization efficiency, oxygen leads to the over oxidation product of CO2 which is not environmentally friendly. Today, many catalysts to avoid the oxidative conversion of natural gas have been proposed, but none are yet economically available.
Indeed, catalysts have long been considered the Holy Grail of chemistry. In the conversion of methane gas to ethylene, the Holy Grail is a catalyst that can activate the first C–H bond of methane without oxidation. But it is very challenging, if not impossible for any catalyst as 4.35 eV is required to cleave the C-H bond while methyl radicals at 9.84 eV only form at the 12.6 eV ionization potential of methane.
Recently, Science contrary to the requirement of 12.6 eV ionization potential reported the direct nonoxidative conversion of methane at the relatively high efficiency of 50% at 1363 K. The catalytic mechanism thought to explain the remarkable methane conversion efficiency without the formation of CO2 was based on passing the methane over a surface comprising single iron sites embedded in a silica matrix, the iron sites being 2-5 nm nanoparticles. Nanoconfinement of the iron sites in the silica surface was thought to initiate the catalytic generation of methyl radicals, followed by a series of gas-phase reactions.
Experimentally, the methyl radicals including the aforementioned methane reaction products were clearly observed with ultraviolet spectroscopy, Ibid. Theoretical support of the series of gas-phase reactions at 1225 K was simulated with DFT by assuming the nanoconfinement mechanism somehow formed a pair of methyl radicals at 9.84 eV. DFT stands for density functional theory. The DFT simulation showed the methyl radical pair to combine in a strongly exothermic process to produce ethylene, but otherwise leads to all of the methane reaction products.
The problem is the DFT simulation may explain how methyl radicals once formed combine to produce the methane reaction products, but does not explain how the nanoconfnement mechanism of iron sites in the silica surface produces the 9.84 eV necessary to form the methyl radicals. A catalytic mechanism capable of ionizing the methane molecule at 12.6 eV is required.
QED induced radiation is proposed as the catalytic mechanism capable of ionizing the methane molecule. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. Finding basis in the QM requirement that the heat capacity of the atoms in the iron sites vanishes at the nanoscale, heat absorbed by the iron site from the silica matrix cannot be conserved by an increase in temperature. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Instead, conservation proceeds by the QED induced frequency up-conversion of the absorbed heat by the iron site to non-thermal EM radiation at its TIR confinement frequency. EM stands for electromagnetic and TIR for total internal reflection. QED induced catalysis by nanoparticles is not new. See ChinCatalysis Indeed, the EM radiation having Planck energy beyond the UV is sufficient to ionize methane molecules that come near the iron site. See numerous QED applications on this web page.
However, the QED induced catalytic conversion of methane by iron sites in a silica matrix may be significantly enhanced by flowing the methane through a cylindrical reactor provided with a removable liner comprising a nanoscale iron coating on a silica substrate, the substrate having a thickness of a few 10s of microns as shown the thumbnail. The liner may be formed by rolling-up a flat geometry where it is more convenient to control the nano coating thickness. A surface heater supplies the heat Q to the nanoscale iron coating, but by QM the nano coating cannot increase in temperature. In are:stead, QED induces the heat to be converted to EM radiation that ionizes the methane to produce the methyl radicals that initiate the formation of ethylene. See PressRelease .
1. The catalytic nature of nanoparticles by QED induced radiation is not new. The QM restriction of vanishing heat capacity of atoms in nanoparticles requires the conservation of any form of absorbed EM energy by the emission of QED radiation that enhances chemical reactions. .
2. QED induced radiation based on QM having the capability of ionizing natural gas explains the remarkable efficiency in catalytic surfaces comprising iron nanoparticles in a silica matrix is indeed the Holy Grail of catalysis..
3. By QED radiation, conversion efficiency may be significantly improved by flowing natural gas through a cylindrical reactor provided with a removable liner comprising a nanoscale iron coating on a silica substrate, although other more suitable materials may be used. The QED radiation wavelength depending on the thickness of the nano coating may be tailored to excite the desired quantum state of the flowing gas molecules simply by providing a set of liners with differing nano coating thicknesses.
The Ebowla in disinfecting the Ebola virus
The Ebola virus outbreak is a worldwide concern. the CDC has issued guidelines for how Ebola is to be disinfected in hospital and healthcare centers. CDC stands for Center for Disease Control. Currently, robotic UVGI systems are proposed to decontaminate healthcare facilities. UVGI stands for Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiant. Hospital staff controls the robot, but vacate the room during the application of UVGI light pulses that continue for 5 minutes. Greater flexibility is provided with hand-held UVGI systems that allow mobile and rapid disinfection of Ebola on surfaces and the surrounding air. Electrically powered 400 W hand-held devices producing a blade-like UV-C light beam (50 mm wide x 500 mm high) achieves 99% reduction of the Ebola virus in 5 seconds. Large areas are decontaminated using slow scanning of the UV-C light beam.
The UVGI systems disinfect Ebola including Tuberculosis and Lassa by irradiating surfaces and air using 254 nm UV-C light. But UV-C disinfection may be used for other pathogens, e.g., the CDC states that about 1 in 20 patients have an infection while receiving health care treatment in U.S. hospitals. Disinfecting health care facilities of all pathogens is challenging scientists to develop more advanced technology for better disinfection.
However, the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlights the inability of countries in the developing world to control the spread of the Ebola virus. Indeed, the protocol for Ebola disinfection available in the U.S. is too complex and costly. Simply put, lack of money has hampered healthcare facilities and personnel from controlling the spread of the Ebola virus. In the developing world, robotic and manually operated UVGI systems in the U.S. are simply too costly let alone requiring sources of electricity which are usually not available.
QED induced EM radiation from body heat in hand-held nano-coated bowls called Ebowlas is proposed to provide the UV-C from which the Ebola virus on surfaces or in the air may be disinfected inexpensively without electrical power. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics and EM for electromagnetic. The 80 mm diameter Ebowla forms a cylindrical beam of UV-C light for disinfection. The Protocol is to scan holding the Ebowla in one hand, the details of which are shown in the figure above. In principle, the Ebowla is similar to the recently disclosed hand-held water bowl that uses body heat to kill water borne pathogens in drinking water without See QED induced water purification above
The QED induced UV-C radiation from the Ebowla is especially suited for disinfecting the Ebola virus in the developing world that lacks sources of electricity. Costs are minimal allowing the Ebowla to be distributed to individuals by governments without costs. Moreover, the Ebowla may also be used to disinfect drinking water. But even in the U.S. and the developed world, the Ebowla would allow simple germicidal disinfection for nurses in hospitals or the public in their homes as well as assuring drinking water is free of pathogens. Where drinking water disinfection is not so important, the Ebowla may be replaced with a flat nano-coated surfaces, say carried in the pocket of a nurse or worn as a badge.
Ebola disinfection by QED induced UV-C from body heat using hand-held Ebowlas is new, but not the use of body heat to power electronics. Recently, body heat in holding a flashlight was shown to produce light. Peltier cells were built into the flashlight's casing to absorb body heat from a person's hand. Although QED induced radiation is far more efficient than the Peltier effect, only monochromatic light for a given coating thickness is produced. Therefore, using QED to make, say red flashlights is possible, but not white light comprising a mix of frequencies. Whether the nano-coating thickness can be structured to produce QED induced white light remains to shown.
For details, see Paper , Presentation, and Press Release
The discovery of exoplanets orbiting the distant star HR8799 supports the theory that exoplanets surround other stars in the Universe consistent with the planets that orbit our sun. See AJ paper. But the HR8799 System differs from our solar system as HR8799 is: (1) a young star containing large amounts of dust haloes not present in our solar system, and (2) emits UV radiation 3 orders of magnitude higher than our sun. But dust is a problem because even in the interstellar medium, far smaller quantities of dust affect all astronomical measurements of redshift, e.g., the Hubble redshift in an expanding Universe central to cosmology. In fact, dust requires requires corrections to measured Z to determine Hubble Z using the difference between the redshift of Lyman-alpha and H-alpha lines.
Zcorrection = (Z Lyman-alpha -Z H-alpha)
ZHubble = Zmeas - Zcorrection
If Z correction = 0, Z Hubble = Zmeas. But if Zcorrection > 0, ZHubble < Zmeas. Details are given in APRIM 2014 Cosmology and Cosmic Dust, 2014. For convenience, the APRIM paper may be opened here.
Extensions of redshift by dust between a receding galaxy and the Earth may be made to the effect of dust in the measurement of IR spectra from the location of a perceived exoplanet and the star by assuming all the redshift occurs in the dust. However, the question is:
Whether the dust debris of distant solar systems confounds IR spectra measurements to question the claimed discovery of exoplanets?
In the HR8799 system, four planets were claimed discovered based on IR spectroscopic measurements in the wavelength range from 995 to 1769 nm. Molecular lines of common gases found in the atmospheres of planets in our solar system were used including ammonia, acetylene, methane, and carbon dioxide. However, the IR spectra of HR8799 showed anomalies that suggest the spectra are not produced by molecules on the planets. What this means is the IR spectra taken as proof of the discovery of the exoplanets is questionable. For details, see PressRelease
Briefly, the IR spectra of HR8799 are not produced by molecular lines of common gases, but rather ny the QED induced redshift of UV radiation (Lyman-alpha) photons in dust NPs the of debris haloes. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics and NPs for nanoparticles. The consequence of QED radiation is the molecules thought measured by IR spectroscopy are in fact redshifted Lyman-alpha photons having a wavelength depending on the size distribution of the dust NPs between the perceived location of the planet and HR8799.
What this means is exoplanets orbiting a distant star may exist, but any discovery cannot be proven using the IR spectra of common planetary gases. Young stars like HR8799 emit Lyman-alpha radiation that is absorbed in dust NPs of debris disks to produce IR spectra that could falsely be interpreted as proof of an exoplanet discovery - when in fact the IR spectra is an artifact of dust and the exoplanet does not exist.
Expanding Universe or Cosmic Dust?
QED induced EM radiation in cosmic dust NPs is proposed as the mechanism by which both AME and Hubble redshift may be used to asess an expanding Universe. QED radiation is a consequence of QM that denies the atoms in NPs under TIR confinement to have the heat capacity to allow increases in NP temperature upon absorbing galaxy light.
In AME and Hubble redshift, the only galaxy light considered is single Lyα photons absorbed in spherical dust NPs of amorphous silicon. Ly stands for Lyman. Since NPs have high surface to volume ratios, the absorbed Lyα photon is induced by QED to be totally confined by TIR to the NP surface. Hence, the TIR wavelength of the QED induced photon is the NP circumference 2π a n, where a and n are the NP radius and refractive index. See Korean Paper However, the QED response of the NP to AME produced by the Lyα photon depends on its size, the maximum diameter 2a < 1 micron. In small NPs with a < 0.04 micron, the Lyα photon is conserved by spinning the NP, the dipole moments of which producing the AME; whereas, the larger NPs having a > 0.04 micron redshift the Lyα photon to produce VIS and near IR light. The AME frequency and Hubble redshift wavelengths in relation to the dust radius in the figure above.
In QED redshift, NPs for a > 0.040 microns absorb single Lyα photons, i.e., blueshift requiring greater EM energy than that of the Lya photon cannot occur as the conservation of energy would be violated. The QED induced redshift Z in dust is, Z = ( λ - λ* ) / λ*, where λ and λ* are the wavelengths of the QED redshifted and Lyα photons. For a < 0.5 microns, the figure shows the redshifted wavelength 0.376 microns begins at NP radius a = 0.04 microns in the VIS to 5.7 microns in the IR. Larger NPs > 1 micron are required to produce QED induced UIR bands, but heating of NPs and PAH to produce IR emissions is precluded by QM. UIR stands for unidentified infrared and PAH for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
With regard to AME based on classical physics, the absorbed Lya photon is dissipated by an increase in temperature, see e.g. Paper But temperature increases are forbidden by QM. Hence, the absorbed Lyα photon can only be conserved in the TIR mode of the NP. Since blueshift cannot occur, and since the TIR mode is tangential to the surface of the NP, the Lyα photon naturally produces circularly polarized light around the NP to exert a torqueon the NP. Hence, the the Lyα photon energy is conserved by the kinetic energy of spinning NP. Circularly polarized light in NPs is illustrated below by the E-field rotating normal to the NP surface upon Lyα photon absorption.
In summary, current AME mechanisms that excite NP rotation by IR emission from increased temperatures upon UV absorption cannot be valid by QM. Similarly, the UIR bands thought formed by increased temperatures of PAH molecules are not valid.
Further, the AME is most likely caused by dust not as a relic of gravitational waves in an expanding Universe following the Big Bang. The CMB spectrum therefore can only be caused by thermal blackbody radiation from a static Universe reaching an equilibrium temperature of 2.726 K over an infinitely long time.
See Paper and Press Release
Covetics by QED Radiation
Covetics are new compounds formed by adding carbon NPs to molten metals (aluminum, copper, silver, etc.) that upon solidification enhance the yield strength of the metal. See Covetics overview.
However, controversy surrounds how the Covetics bond forms with the metal. During thermal processing of Covetics, a known amount of carbon is added to the molten metal. Upon solidification, Covetics samples are taken from which the carbon bonded to the metal is thought given by the difference between the carbon added and that combusted by the LECO method. In LECO, a sample is heated in oxygen to 1500 C and the carbon content inferred from the CO2 produced by the chemical reaction with oxygen by infrared absorption spectrometry.
But the bonding of carbon NPs to aluminum is questionable as the Covetics is observed to not change contrary to the law of mixtures that predicts ~10 % reduction in density. See above micrograph of carbon NPs in fracture surface of 6061 aluminum. A similar problem on density was found for copper. Moreover, the activation energy for the formation of the Covetics bond based on DFT has failed to show stable carbon-metal configurations. DFT stands for density functional theory. Both the law of mixtures and DFT suggest bonding of carbon to the metal lattice cannot be the Covetics mechanism.
For details, see Paper and Press Release
1. Covetics by QED radiation depends on whether the carbons added to the melt are nano or microcarbons. In Al Covetics, adding NPs at ambient temperature enhances the yield strength by QED stiffening of the lattice, but NPs remain in the lattice. See QED stiffening of silver nanorods.
But in Cu Covetics, micron sized particles of activated carbon acquire the melt temperature and by combustion reduce in size to become NPs. But unlike Al NPs added at ambient temperature, Cu NPs at melt temperatures promply combust. Absent NPs, there is no enhanced yield of the Cu Covetic by QED stiffening. For microcarbons, only carbon bonding may enhance the yield. Regardless, tensile tests are required to support claims of yield enhancement in Covetics
2. The failure of DFT to find stable metal-carbon atomic binding configurations and the lower density expected from the law of mixtures is consistent with the missing carbon inferred from LECO being combusted in thermal processing compared to the less favorable formation of carbon bonding to the metal lattice.
3. Covetic nanoscale films do not show NPs as the microcarbons are most likely toyallly combusted in thermal processing.
Cancer Risk: Worse than bad luck?
Science reported genomic changes occur in an organ simply by chance during DNA replication rather than as traditionally thought by carcinogens. Paper The study showed that although melanocytes and basal epidermal cells of the skin are both exposed to the same dose of UV from solar radiation, melanomas are much less common than basal cell carcinomas because the larger number of basal epidermal cells undergo a higher number of divisions than melanocytes.
However, not all agreed. The contrarian argument may be made that cancer need not be proportional to the number of replications that the DNA undergoes, but by carcinogens that damage the DNA independent of replications.
But cancer riusk by chance is not necessary as there is a causal explanation:
Melanosomes that form in the melanocytes contain melanin granule NPs that emit UV radiation causing DNA damage that leads to mostly basal cell carcinomas with few melanomas. NPs stands for nanoparticles.
Indeed, it widely known the antimicrobial action of NPs is caused by damaging the DNA of bacteria, but by the same reason NPs also damage human DNA, that if not repaired, may lead to cancer. The human body naturally creates NPs that may damage the DNA, e.g., the breakdown of epithelial tissue which produces NPs associated with the spread of tumors.
With melanin NPs, the cancer risk byUV radiation is depicted in the figure. Melanocyte cells located in the basal layer of the dermis have dendrite structures that penetrate into the lower epidermis. Melanosones having sizes of about 1 micron formed within the melanocytes pass through the outer tips of the dendrites into the dermis. Removed from melanocytes, the melanosomes are collections of < 100 nm melanin granule NPs.
By QED induced EM radiation, the melanin NPs absorbing heat from the thermal surroundings cannot increase in temperature because of quantum mechanics. Provided the refractive index of the NP is greater than that of the cellular surroundings, the heat is conserved by QED inducing the melanin NPs to emit UV radiation, a condition that is satisfied for 30 nm melanin NPs having an index of 1.7 while that of the surroundings is 1.35. Paper In this way, the emission of UV radiation from the melanin NPs damages the DNA in both melanocytes and basal cells. But because of the small number of melanocytes in the basal layer, most DNA damage caused by the UV radiation from the melanin NPs occurs in the basal cells with little, if any DNA damage in the melanocytes. Basal cell carcinoma is therefore far more common than melanoma.
Cancer risk may not be a matter of chance or bad luck. Rather, cancer may be caused solely by DNA damage from QED induced UV radiation in NPs. Setting aside DNA damage by chemicals, the hypothesis may be made that UV radiation from melanin NPs in melanocytes is the sole cause of cancers because of the DNA damage in surrounding tissue. But the NPs need not be limited to melanin - all biological and man-made NPs damage the DNA, e.g., the nicotine NPs that enter lung tissue by smoking. A literature review of cancer risk based on the presence of < 100 nm NPs in all cancers is required to further assess this hypothesis.
See Paper and PR