Quotations


Thought for Us


The important thing is not to stop questioning


A. Einstein

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Cancer and Nanoparticles


Over the past few decades, Nanotechnology has  claimed NPs destroy cancer cells. But recent research shows NPs also enhance the spread of cancer cells by increasing the gap between blood vessel epithelial cells allowing cancer cells by metastasis to leak into the bloodstream and spread throughout the body.

However, if the mechanism by which the NP destroys the cancer cells is also the same as causing the cancer to spread throughout the body, any benefits of NPs in future medicine must be questioned.

In this regard, simple QED shows NPs emit UV radiation that both destroys cancer cells as well as disrupting epithelial cells. Moreover, the UV damages and mutates DNA, the consequence of which may lead to decades later cancer. Simple QED is the consequence of the Planck law that denies atoms in NPs the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature, and therefore conservation proceeds by NPs creating size-dependent standing EM radiation within and across the NP diameter. Because NPs have high surface-to-volume ratios, heat is deposited in the NP surface, the surface heat itself providing the brief EM confinement necessary to convert itself into standing EUV radiation, the EUV in water fluorescing down to UVC levels.

NPs migrating into the gaps between cells therefore emit UV that charges gap surfaces producing electrostatic repulsion that widens the gap to micron levels allowing cancer cells to cross blood vessel walls and spread through the body. For 20 nm titanium dioxide NPs, EUV at ~ 20 eV is created that in water is lowered by fluorescence to UVC levels that destroy cancer tumors, but also disrupt vessel walls leading to the spread of the very cancer the NPs were intended to destroy.  The electrostatic repulsive force between adjacent epthelial cells is shown below.


The electrostatic force F depends on the number N of charges, but is not known. Estimates on the scale of physiological level give F ~ 5 pN. For g = 1 micron, N ~ 1300. Both gap surfaces require 2600 charges. For the single 20 nm NP, the 1.3 UVC photons induced per second take about 33 minutes to produce 2600 charges. Experimentally, the 18-23 nm TiO2 NPs showed cell leakage to take about 30 minutes. 

The repulsive force F ~ 5 pN is only an assumption, but still is agreement with experiment. The NP-induced UV not only produces Coulomb repulsion, but also deregulates VE-cadherin adhesion consistent with increased vascular permeability. A preliminary Paper is available.

In summary,

NPs cannot conserve heat from thermal surroundings by an increase in temperature because the Planck law of quantum mechanics precludes the atoms in NPs from having heat capacity.  Conservation proceeds by simple QED creating standing EM radiation within and across the NP diameter. The EM radiation is intrinsic to NPs and nanoscale features < 100 nm of all biological structures. In contrast, macroparticles > 100 nm conserve heat by an increase in temperature. 

Simple QED provides NPs with a source of UV radiation > 5 eV to create ROS of OH hydroxyl radicals and O super-oxides from cellular water and oxygen. Biological reactions in mitochondria thought induced by ROS are in fact produced by UV emissions from nanoscale features in cristae of mitochondria.

Cancer metastasis induced by NP-induced widening of gaps between epithelial cells need not be explained by complex chemical relation that can have never really been verified. NPs that migrate into the gap only need simple QED to produce UV radiation that by the photoelectric effect charges gap surfaces to produce an electrostatic repulsive force that widens the gap to micron size allowing cancer cells to enter and leave the blood stream. However, NP-induced UV also deregulates VE-cadherin adhesion. 

NPs are not always beneficial in nanomedicine. Indeed, the NP-induced UV that destroys cancer tumors is the same mechanism that by metastasis spreads the very same tumor through the bloodstream to other organs in the body.  NPs in nanomedicine should not be treated as always beneficial, but avoided for patients disposed to cancer.   


E-cigarettes and cancer?


Electronic e-cigarettes are common throughout the world. E-cigarettes deliver the nicotine stimulant through aerosols to the lungs without burning tobacco. Recently, e-cigarette smokers have mysteriously expressed nicotine poisoning symptoms including nausea and vomiting, excessive salivation, headache, and dizziness followed later by a period of central nervous system depression, paralysis, difficulty in breathing and even death.

Unlike the immediacy of nicotine poisoning, the potential of cancer developing decades later from e-cigarettes was assessed with DNA tests that showed nicotine enhanced the UV-induced DNA mutation frequency in both human lung and bladder epithelial cells by two- to fourfold.

Unlike tobacco smoke, e-cigarette aerosols are thought to contain nicotine and relatively harmless organic solvents, and therefore e-cigarettes are considered non-carcinogenic and a safer substitute for tobacco. But this is questionable as the e-cigarette aersol contains nanoparticles (NPs).  Although NPs are not the major component in the aerosol, NPs are the most important. NPs by emitting UV radiation excite nicotine to high electronic states to enhance mutagenic DNA and inhibit DNA repair in human lung and bladder epithelial cells, all of which are unlikely for nicotine in the ground state.

NPs make e-cigarette smoking far more serious in future cancers than normal cigarettes. E-cigarettes produce NPs from the metal heater. For Blu Classic Tobacco - 5 second puff - Flow rate 15 ml/s - Liquid dilution 1/30, the concentration of NPs depends on 'puff time' and 'particle size' as shown below. The concentration of UVC radiation is shown by the yelllow line.


Once the NPs are free in the aerosol, simple QED predicts heating induces the NPs depending on NP size to emit EM radiation in the EUV-UVC-UV-VIS-IR.  NPs > 100 nm producing VIS and IR are harmless. Irrespective of the NP metal, the average EM radiation of 50-70 nm NPs is in the UV coinciding with the UVC absorption peak of nicotine and DNA spectra. EUV produced in < 50 nm NPs produce UVC by fluorescence, but may be neglected because of the low conversion efficiency.

Enhanced DNA damage is consistent with simple QED that predicts NPs produced from the metal heater in the e-cigarette emit UV radiation known to cause DNA mutations. Simple QED is the consequence of the Planck law that denies atoms in NPs the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature, and therefore conservation proceeds by the NP creating size-dependent standing EM radiation within and across the NP diameter. Of concern, 50-100 nm NPs emit in the UV. The EM confinement for the surface heat to be converted into standing UV is the high surface-to-volume ratios of NPs that requires the absorbed heat to be deposited in the NP surface, the EM energy of the surface heat itself providing the brief, but necessary EM confinement. Once the surface heat is expended in creating the standing UV radiation the EM confinement vanishes, and the UV radiation is free to raise the nicotine to an excited state and/or damage DNA. See preliminary Paper.

The mystery of nicotine poisoning is solved by removing the heater, but then the nicotine would remain in the ground state and not stimulate the smoker's senses. Perhaps, smoking conventional cigarettes is safer than e-cigarettes?


The Biostructure is EM radiation !!!


In the 1970’s, Macovschi proposed living organisms possess a Biostructure comprising a form of matter having living features. The Biostructure is thought to be located in the living cell. The presence of the Biostructure was based on the experiment of compressing living and non-living plant leaves as shown above.

Under hydrostatic compression, the living leaves produced little water or sap, but the non-living leaves produced far more water. Up to pressures of 200 atmospheres, the leaves remained alive. Macovschi considered the water released from living leaves being free water - not the water of the Biostructure itself. In the living state, the Biostructure can withstand high pressure without releasing little water, but once the leaves are killed, more water is released. Macovschi interpreted the difference in the water released from dead and living leaves as proof of the existence of a living Biostructure separately distinct from molecular matter in non-living systems. In so doing, Macovschi suggested a living biological cell consists of both a Biostructure and inanimate molecular matter. Upon cell death, initiated by metabolic inhibitors, heat, or UV radiation; the Biostructure breaks down to molecular matter comprising ordinary molecules.

Macovschi sought to answer the question:  ‘What is life?’. He thought the laws of physics for living systems may require a new level of description above that of Crick & Watson on the structure of DNA which established the structure–function relations in biology.

However, Macovschi's experiment showing water is retained in living leaves may have nothing to do with the Biostructure. Indeed, it is known that binding of water to the components of the cytoskeleton structure of microtubules (MT) increases enormously in the excited state. The increased binding is caused by the dissocioation of water to OH radicals upon EM radiation in the near UV at about 4 eV. Subsequently, the OH combines to form the H2O*OH complex that increase the binding by 5X above the ground state. Hence, Macovschi Experiment can be explained without the need of a Biostructure if a source of EM radiation exciting the water was present in the leaves.

But how do leaves produce EM radiation at 4 eV?

In this regard, Macovschi's Experiment is explained by simple QED producing endogenous EM radiation in the UV from the MT of the cytoskeleton upon absorbing heat from the intracellular water temperature of the cell.  At the cellular level, exogenous UV from solar radiation is ruled out leaving endogenous UV sources within the cell as the only alternative. Hence, the Biostructure may be nothing more than increased binding of water from endogenous UV radiation produced in MTs.

However, simple QED in 25 nm diameter MT produces EUV at 17.7 eV and not UV at 4 eV. The fluorescence of water at 17.7 eV produces 4 eV, but at low efficiency.  The OH fluorescence of water from Lyman-alpha photons at 10.2 eV is about 8 percent as shown below.


The OH fluorescence of water at 17.7 eV will be less than 8 percent. Although the number of EUV photons is large, the efficiency will lower the number of 4 eV photons available for increased OH binding. Experimental OH fluorescence of water excited at 17.7 eV is recommended to show high water binding. A preliminary Paper is available.


Endogenous UV Radiation in Mitochondria
  

Exogenous DNA damage is thought to occur by oxidative stress in cells of internal organs in contrast to exogenous DNA damage of the skin from solar UV. However, by simple QED, endogenous UV produced in nanoscale features of cellular structures under metabolic heating directly causes DNA damage, although the UV may create oxidative stress that indirectly damages DNA. Simple QED is the consequence of the Planck law that denies atoms in nanostructures the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature. Because of the high surface-to-volume ratio of nanostructures, metabolic heat is almost totally confined to their surfaces, and the surface heat as EM energy provides the confinement by which standing EM radiation is created in the nanostructure. Once the surface heat is expended in creating the standing radiation, the EM confinement vanishes and the EM radiation is free to damage DNA or induce oxidative stress in surrounding tissue. 

Body temperature produced by metabolic heat also induces nanostructures to emit EM radiation. At UV levels, DNA is damaged, but the UV also produces ATP and excites enzymes for DNA repair, the delicate balance of which allowing mitochondrial survival over billions of years. From intense exogenous solar UV on the early Earth that is absent today, mitochondria evolved their cellular structure to produce their own endogenous UV. To illustrate the balance between UV induced ATP production with DNA damage and repair, simple QED shown to produce UVC radiation in thermal surroundings from a single 80 nm NP  upon entering the blood stream in vaccinations is shown as folllows.


The radius Rs at which blood atoms have thermal kT energy is illustrated ab0ve. The Planck law at 300 K shows atoms to have thermal kT energy at confinement wavelengths  λ > 200 microns. For blood having refractive index n = 1.4, the radius Rs =  λ/4n = 36 microns. No temperature changes occur for R < Rs including the NP. What this means is the heat flow Q from the bath for  R < Rs at temperature T is converted at Rs to EM radiation in the far IR and upon being absorbed at the NP surface produce the UVC photon. For a temperature change DT = 5 K, the recovery time is about 1 s, or the NP produces about 1 UVC photon per second which can easily be verified in a water bath experiment. On a daily basis, the single 80 nm NP presents a significant burden on DNA repair as about 86,000 UVC photons are emitted into the blood stream, the UVC photons producing both ATP and damaging DNA.

The large number of UVC photons predicted from NPs in a thermal bath suggest that current vaccination practice of adding aluminum adjuvant NPs to stimulate the immune systems should be reviewed for brain damage. Regardless, 50 – 100 nm NPs should be prohibited in vaccinations because of UVC damage to DNA. Tests are recommended to determine if NPs < 50 nm producing EUV can stimulate the immune system. If so, only < 50 nm NPs should be used to stimulate immune systems in vaccinations to avoid UVC induced brain damage. See preliminary Paper 


CMBR is created in Our Solar System!!!


Dicke and others  came to the conclusion that the Big Bang left behind residual radiation which would still be present in the Universe as black body EM radiation with a temperature of about 10 K. However Cosmic Background Radiation (CMBR) evolved from models of the Big Bang by Gamow beginning in 1948. Only later in 1965 did Penzias and Wilson measure the microwave EM radiation coming from space. Dicke did not believe that the radiation came from a cold source, and instead cold temperatures were produced during the Big Bang in the expansion of the Universe.  
 
However, Universe expansion is not required to reach 2.725 K temperatures.
 
The 2.725 K CMBR temperatures is a natural consequence of our Solar System. Beyond the Planetary System, the Oort Cloud at 10,000 AU is naturally cold.  In 1950, the Oort Cloud was inferred by studying the orbits of different comets as comets were permanent members of the Solar System and not random bodies. Unlike the disk-like Planetary System in the ecliptic of the Sun, the Oort cloud is spherical.


The equilibrium temperature T of the Oort Cloud may be estimated by assuming blackbody thermal radiation emitted by the Sun at temperature Ts is absorbed without reflection by the Oort Cloud.  
 
T =Ts (Rs/2D)
 
where, Ts = 5800 K and Rs = 693 x 106 m. From the above Figure, the distance D is arbitrarily taken as the midpoint of the Oort Cloud, i.e., D = 10,000 AU. For 1 AU = 150 x 109 m, T = 2.79 K. Similarly, the Earth at 1 AU from the Sun gives T = 279 K. The temperature of the CMBR at 2.725 K is close to the 2.79 K estimated from blackbody radiation at D = 10,000 AU.


The selection of D = 10,000 AU is arbitrary. The Black Body relation is independent of the size of the Oort Clound which means that any finite particle having heat capacity will have a temperature depending on its distance D from the Sun. Indeed, there is an infinite number of particles in the Oort Cloud which means each particle has its own microwave frequency varying around 160 GHz. This can only be correct if the Oort Cloud at about 10,000 AU has reached thermal equilibrium at a temperature of 2.725 K. This condition on the 2.725 K CMBR temperature is far more realistic than the Big Bang expansion of the Universe to 2.725 K. Indeed, this is observed in the CMBR spectrum below.


In conclusion, 

The Big Bang and subsequent expansion of the Universe used to explain the 2.725 K black-body temperature of the CMBR never happened. Instead, the 2.725 K is the consequence of the Sun as a black body heating our Solar System at distance comparable to the middle of the Oort Cloud. The equilibrium 2.725 K temperature of the Oort Cloud depends only on the size and temperature of the Sun and the distance from the Sun to the particles forming the Oort Cloud boundary, provided the particles are macroscopic with constituent atoms having heat capacity.  
 
Redshift of galaxies beyond the Oort Cloud are highly overstated on Earth by the dust in our and other Solar Systems. Although simple QED suggests dust absorption significantly redshifts emission lines from distant  galaxies, any precise correction of galaxy velocities is not possible. Regardless, it can unequivocally be stated an expanding Universe based on dust redshift does not exist with Galaxy dynamics given by Newtonian mechanics.  
 
Simple QED applied to the absorption of Lyα photons in dust NPs < 1 micron provides the basis for assessing CMBR anisotropy. Cosmic dust having radii < 0.04 microns produce anomalous microwave emission (AME) while redshift occurs for NPs > 0.04 microns.
 
Current AME mechanisms that excite NP rotation by IR emission from thermal fluctuations cannot be valid by the Planck law of quantum mechanics. Similarly, the UIR bands thought formed by increased temperatures of PAH molecules are also not valid.
 
Simple QED induced AME based on charge created upon absorption of Lyα photons exceeds the ionization potentials of most materials, i.e., AME occurs by spinning of simple QED induced charge. Cosmic dust need not be magnetic to produce AME.  
 
The AME is caused by dust and is not as a relic of gravitational waves in an expanding Universe following the Big Bang. The CMBR spectrum is produced by thermal blackbody radiation from our Sun reaching an equilibrium temperature of 2.725 K in macroscopic particles at a distance comparable to the distance of the Oort Cloud from the Sun.

The CMBR as a consequence of our Solar System is described in a preliminary Paper 


Dark Matter does not Exist


Dark Matter & Modified Gravity are being discussed at the Dark Matter & Modified Gravity Conference from 6 to 8 February 2019 at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. Interdisciplinary perspectives on astrophysical and cosmological observations as well as problems in the Standard Model of particle physics may imply the existence of Dark Matter and/or a modification of our theory of space and time. The numerous Dark Matter and Modified Gravity approaches, even in the light of the vast amount of relevant collider based and astrophysical observations is complex, but the overlap of the research may allow for a simplification. One focus of this conference is Dark Matter searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)and the connection between theories of gravity. Discussions are  planned on choosing between the two research programs, and choosing between different models in each research program. 
 
In this regard, a return of cosmology to Newtonian mechanics is herein proposed.      
 
Since the 1930's, astrophysical observations have implied the existence of Dark Matter because high velocities were measured. In the 1970's, the M31 spiral galaxy was extensively studied and shown to produce a flat rotation curve that also supported the notion that Dark Matter exists. Only a decade ago, GL showed the Bullet Cluster could not stay together without the existence of Dark Matter. GL stands for gravitational lensing. In the above figure, the red area represents X-ray heating and the blue shows the Dark Matter derived from GL.  However, direct experimental proof of a Dark Matter particle has not yet been found.  In the alternative to the existence of Dark Matter,  Modified Gravity has been proposed, but the agreement between numerical simulations of MOND and astrophysical observations is still only numerical, and lacking physical basis cannot be verified by experiment.
 
But what if the notion that the existence of Dark Matter inferred from M31 and recent GL data including the Bullet Cluster is not correct?
 
 
It is important to note, the astrophysical observations of Dark Matter were made with velocities inferred using optical redshift in Doppler's effect, and perhaps the redshifts overstated the velocities. In this regard, cosmic dust that permeates the Universe is proposed to redshift the light beyond that emitted from a distant galaxy. If the redshift from dust overstates the velocity of the galaxy to the extent that the galaxy cannot stay together as observed, it would be incorrect to assume Dark Matter exists, and instead, the velocities should be corrected for redshift in cosmic dust. Alternatively, by neglecting the dust redshift, the galaxy velocities would be lower bound by Newtonian mechanics.  Unlike MOND, the redshift in cosmic dust may be experimentally verified and is a well -known phenomenon in laser experiments of NPs in nanotechnology.  NPs stand for nanoparticles. 
 
Since Hubble, redshift of galaxy light in cosmic dust went unnoticed for almost a century because light interaction with NPs was assumed to follow classical physics and increase in temperature upon absorbing a galaxy photon.  However, classical physics is not applicable as the dust is not macroscopic, but rather nanoscopic following the Planck law of QM that requires the heat capacity of the atoms in NPs to vanish, provided the NP atoms are placed under high EM confinement. QM stands for quantum mechanics. As nature would have it, EM confinement is naturally high in NPs because of their high surface-to-volume ratios, and therefore the galaxy photon is almost totally absorbed  in the NP surface. Unable to increase in temperature, the NP cannot expand to relieve the surface heat, thereby providing the EM confinement necessary for the heat capacity of the atoms to vanish. Lacking a thermal response, photon absorption by a NP can only be conserved by a non-thermal mechanism proposed here as simple QED. 
 
Simple QED relies on the high surface-to-volume ratios of cosmic dust NPs  to create, non-thermal standing EM radiation inside the NP across the diameter d having half-wavelength λo/2 = d. In effect, a galaxy photon having wavelength λ is redshifted to λo depending on the NP dimensions, i.e., the energy of the galaxy photon adjusts within the EM confinement defined by the NP dimensions between opposing dust surfaces. The speed of light c corrected for the refractive index n of the dust gives the Planck energy E of the redshifted galaxy light, E = h(c/n)/λo. On Earth, the galaxy light is observed to have wavelength λo with redshift z = (λo - λ)/λ, where λo = 2nd. Once the Planck energy of the galaxy photon absorbed in the dust surface is expended in forming the redshifted galaxy photon, the EM confinement vanishes allowing the redshifted photon to freely travel to the Earth.

By correcting for overstated velocities, galaxy dynamics follows Newtonian mechanics, or the low velocity limit of Einstein’'s general relativity. Either way, cosmology returns to Newtonian mechanics once proposed by Einstein.  For more details, see the tentative Conference Abstract and PPT Presentation. An Audio MP3 file is available. Open PPT and audio files in separate windows. Play the Audio MP3 file and manually follow with the PPT file.


The EuroSciCon is the 11th Edition of International Conference on Structural Biology held during  March 07-08, 2019 in Berlin.  Structural Biology is directed to predicting the 3D structures of proteins using the computational techniques. Of interest is the computational methods in the folding and unfoldiibg of  small proteins.

Despite explaining protein folding using classical statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, few molecular dynamics (MD) simulations explicitly include basic physical electrostatics and Van Der Waals forces. Although folding occurs in isolation, MD simulations are performed with  periodic boundaries. Heat provides the denaturant, and is simulated by specifying the protein temperature. Classical  thermodynamics assumes the native folded state of globular proteins to correspond lowest-energy states, but this is not always true. Moreover, folding is a rapid process that occurs on microsecond time scales, but the response of proteins having a hydrophobic interior is a slow process. In contrast, electrostatic effects propagating at light speed and are important for rapid kinetics, but neglected in MD simulations.  

More fundamentally, current MD simulations are problematic because of the differences between classical physics and QM with respect to the heat capacity of the atom. QM stands for quantum mechanics. In this regard, proteins are generally thought to unfold upon increasing temperature based on the classical assumption the constituent atoms have heat capacity. But  the Planck law of QM requires the heat capacity of the atom to vanish with conservation proceeding by creating EM radiation that removes electrons to positively charge the protein atoms. What this means is the heat thought to induce unfolding by increasing the temperature of proteins is actually conserved by producing charge that unfolds the protein by Coulomb repulsion. See Abstract


Dark matter research is undergoing a paradigm shift. Over the last few years, many novel theories have been proposed that challenge the standard assumptions made about dark matter. At the same time, new observations and simulation results are providing valuable clues regarding the most fruitful directions moving forward.

The “Novel Ideas for Dark Matter 2019” Workshop at Princeton University attempts to bridge the gap between communities working on non-standard solutions to the dark matter problem. Plenary talks on theory, observations and simulations will be structured into a three day schedule that will provide a broad overview of research avenues of this type. The workshop aims to promote conversations between research communities with ample time for open discussion.

In this regard, the non-standard solution to Dark Matter is described by the effect of cosmic dust in overstating the redshift of galaxies that by the Doppler shift gives the  high velocities observed that suggests Dark Matter exist to hold the galaxies together. See above Dark Matter and Modified Gravity Conference where emphasis is placed on the M31 spiral galaxy and gravitational lensing. In the Novel Ideas for Dark Matter Workshop, cosmic dust redshift is proposed as the cause of the the variability of the Hubble constant, especially quasars.Hubble first embraced a static Universe until his discovery of the relation of galaxy redshift to astronomical distance and velocity that subsequently led to Einstein’s expanding Universe. However, until the time of his death, Hubble was not convinced his redshift data supported Universe expansion.  Quoting Hubble:
"it is difficult to believe that the velocities are real; that all matter is actually scattering away  from our region of space. It is easier to suppose that the light waves are lengthened and the lines of the spectra are shifted to the red, as though the objects were receding, by some  property of space or by forces acting on the light during its journey to the Earth"
Cosmic dust is a property of space and can redshift light by Hubble redshift or intrinsic redshift shown below. Hubble redshift is light emitted from a galaxy that is recessing from the Earth. By the Doppler effect, the recession velocity V is given by redshift z and the speed of light c. Intrinsic redshift may occur as a dust NP in free space absorbs a photon from the ISM or heat Q from the galaxy. Intrinsic redshift differs from Hubble as the NPs need not have any velocity.


Over the past 50 years,  observations are numerous and compelling that the linear Hubble law: V=HoD describing the standard redshift-distance relationship is not correct. Here, V stands for galaxy velocity and D for the distance to the galaxy from the Earth. Notably, observations show the presence of quasars physically connected to galaxies suggesting both are moving together having the same redshift, but the quasars are found to have far higher redshifts than the galaxies.

What this means is the redshifts are intrinsic (non-cosmological)  and do not have anything to do with galaxy velocity therefore posing a serious dilemma for a cosmology based on an expanding Universe. See prelimnary paper

"The Hubble constant and Intrinsic redshift in Cosmic Dust"

In conclusion, the Hubble constant is not a constant, but varies throughout the Universe. Moreover, the Hubble law is not valid because of the intrinsic redshift of cosmic dust. It is noteworthy  that quasars do not follow the Hubble law. In fact, Hubble based his law on galaxies, but if he had first studied quasars, he would not have concluded the Universe was expanding. An expanding Universe based on the Hubble law is therefore unlikely suggesting the Universe is static and infinite as Einstein once thought.



Astrophysics and Space Sciences

Olbers Paradox


2nd European Physics Congress to be held during May 20-21, 2019 in Berlin, Germany. The main theme of the Conference is "Highlighting Innovations and Challenges in the Field of Physics" which covers a wide range of critically important issues. Physics Congress 2019 is a novel chance to deliberate and share innovative and theoretical knowledge on physics. Of interest is Olbers paradox that requires the speculative Big Bang to explain why the night sky is dark and not bright. See Abstract

 
Vaccination adjuvants and autism


Neuro-degenerative diseases including Autism are characterized by the proliferation of cells from mutations of the neuron's DNA sequence. The DNA damage may be caused by exposure to exogenous agents such as solar UV radiation applied to the skin. However, Science does not recognize DNA damage from UV radiation in internal body tissue. But the implications of UV radiaton from large quantities of aluminum NPs found in the human brain changes this paradigm. NPs stand for nanoparticles. Indeed,  neuron stimulation by UV radiation from NPs is serious problem. The UV is created because quantum mechanics precludes the conservation of heat from metabolic prodcesses to be conserved by an increase in temperature. Instead, UV radiation is emitted that is in fact risky as the DNA damage, if not repaired by the immune system lead to autism. See PR.

In this regard, the rampant increase in Autism has prompted investigations in the US of vaccinations containing NPs of aluminum adjuvants that enter the brain across the blood-brain barrier.  CDC is in charge of recommending the vaccination schedule for US children. CDC stands for Center of Disease Control. The CDC monitors vaccine safety and tracks the number of children with Autism in the US, i.e., from 1 in 10,000 in the 1980 's to 1 in 68 today. In 2016,  the just elected President Trump was quoted as saying:
 
"When I was growing up, Autism wasn't really a factor and now all of a sudden, it's an epidemic. Everybody has their theory, and my theory is the shots. They're getting these massive injections at one time. I think it's the vaccinations."


President Trump is correct about the rapid increase in Autism from vaccinations, but the cause of Autism is not the vaccine, but rather the submicron NPs of aluminum adjuvants in the shots.  See PR

Of interest here, is the link between vaccination adjuvants and autism. Aluminum adjuvants are essential in vaccines to stimulate immune activation of antigens. Without adjuvants, antigen stimulation would be ineffective making vaccinations meaningless.  Typically, adjuvants are 10-100 nm submicron NPs of aluminum hydroxide Al(OH)3 that agglomerate into larger particles with sizes of about 2-20 microns.By the theory of simple QED, the UV producing adjuvants are the 10-100 nm submicron NPs and the larger 2-20 micron particles that are benign in producing UV.

Simple QED conserves metabolic heat by creating non-thermal EM radiation standing across the NP diameter d having half-wavelength λ/2 = d as the heat adjusts to the EM confinement bounded by the NP surface. The speed of light c corrected for the refractive index n of the NP gives the Planck energy E = h(c/n)/λ, i.e., E = hc/2nd. Hence, the 2-20 micron particles produce EM radiation in the IR that is harmless in damaging DNA; whereas, the 10-100 nm submicron particles do indeed produce EM radiation in the UV and beyond.
 

In the figure above, UV radiation is depicted emitted from 10-100 nm particles located on the periphery of the larger 2-20 micron particle. To emit UV at 254 nm, Al(OH)3 with a refractive index n = 1.568 requires a NP diameter d = λ/ 2n ~ 81 nm. By QM, each Al(OH)3 molecule is precluded from having thermal kT energy. Instead, the molecule has an equivalent nonthermal EM energy U, i.e., U = kT, where k is Boltzmann's constant and T is absolute temperature. At a body temperature T = 40 C = 310 K, U = 0.0267 eV. The EM energy E of the UVC  photon at λ = 254 nm, E = hc/λ = 4.88 eV and therefore about 182 Al(OH)3 molecules are required to create a single UVC photon. In a d  = 81 nm NP, the number N of molecules >> 182 meaning many UVC photons are emitted. The NP recovers the emitted UVC energy almost instantaneously from the temperature of the surroundings only to re-emit consecutive UVC photons continuously. See Abstract and Presentation A MP3 Audio File is available. Open the Presentation and Audio File in separate windows and play the Audio file adjusting the Presentation accordingly.


Causal link between Vaccinations and Autism

 
The causal link between vaccinations and autism depends on simple QED - a new method of analysis applicable to the nanoscale heat transfer which is not widely known or even accepted. Simple QED is not the complex light and matter interaction advanced by Feynman  and others.  Simple QED is readily understood by the Planck law of quantum mechanics that requires the heat capacity of constituent atoms in NPs to vanish under EM confinement. In contrast, classical physics commonly used in nanostructures always assumes the atom has heat capacity that produces an increase in temperature upon the absorption of heat. But classical  physics is not valid at the nanoscale.

Since NPs have high Surface-to-Volume ratios, the heat Q absorbed resides almost totally in the NP surface. Lacking heat capacity, the surface heat is conserved by creating EM radiation E standing inside the NP having diameter d. But the surface heat also provides the EM confiement to form the standing EM radiation to a half-wavelength λ/2 = d inside the NP. Once the surface heat is depleted in creating EM standing radiation, the EM confinement vanishes and the standing EM radiation E is free to be emitted to the surroundings that may damage the DNA of the neuron cells in the brain leading to neurodegenerative disease.

The Causal Link between Vaccinations and Autism is explored in Paper1 and  illustrated in the following figure describing Simple QED.



Dark Matter Identification


The Dark Matter Identification (DMI) workshop is to be held on 1-12 April at Johannes Gutenberg University  in Mainz. The workshop Program is to bring together experts from various Dark Matter (DM) communities: model builders, astroparticle physicists, collider phenomenologists, experimentalists and developers of DM tools and to catalyse discussions and collaborations in the atmosphere of the real workshop.

Reasons for Participation: I have developed a cosmology based on the Planck law of quantum mechanics that argues cosmic dust increases the redshift above that given by Hubble thereby overstating the galaxy velocities to the point that dark matter is thought to exist to hold the galaxy together. So, the LCDM model is not necessary as galaxy dynamics follows Newtonian mechanics.

General Remarks: Today, Newtonian mechanics is not appreciated by astronomers. Nevertheless, dark matter does not exist because of cosmic dust. The question is whether astronomy can justify searches for dark matter particles that do not exist. See above Novel Ideas for Dark Matter


NASA and Starlite


Starlite is a material claimed to be able to withstand extreme heat without high temperature. It was invented by British amateur chemist Maurice Ward during the 1970's and 1980's, and received significant publicity after coverage of the material aired by  the BBC in 1990. In 2018, the BBC re-showed their 1980 Starlite presentation.

Since 1980, NASA and other major technological companies have reviewed Starlite, but to this day Starlite is not yet commercialized. Ward, who died in 2011, never revealed the composition of Starlite, which is still unknown, but is said to contain a variety of organic polymers  with both organic and inorganic additives. Simply put, Starlite is a mixture of corn starch, baking soda and PVA glue. PVA stands for poly vinyl acetate. Starlite is claimed to be able to withstand heat from a laser beam that otherwise would produce a temperature of 10,000 C.   
 
Live demonstrations  showed that an egg coated with Starlite remains raw, but cold enough to be picked up with a bare hand, even after five minutes at 2500 C in the flame of a blowtorch as shown below. When heat is applied, the material chars creating an expanding low density foam which is thought to be very thermally resistant. See NightHawkinLight


To explain Starlite, heat transfer of NPs in a matrix of PVA glue is required. NPs stands for nanoparticles  (< 100 nm) of  corn starch and baking soda.  But in 1980, heat transfer was dominated by classical physics where heat absorbed by NPs does indeed increase in temperature with the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation equation describing temperature.  
 
But heat transfer of NPs requires simple QED based on QM as the NPs are nanoscale.
 
QM stands for quantum mechanics while simple QED is described throughout this website. Briefly, simple QED requires the heat capacity of isolated NPs vanishes in a thermally expanded matrix of a low density solidified glue, and therefore the NPs conserve heat of the blow torch by the emission of EM radiation.  As shown in the BBC presentation, VIS light in the red was emitted. But not seen is emitted UV light. Except for a small temperature increase in the PVA glue, there is no increase in the temperature of the NPs as almost all of the heat is removed by EM radiation, thereby explaining how the egg remains raw after exposure to blow torch heating. For verification of Starlite by simple QED, NASA is recommended to perform spectroscopic measurements of the EM emission from the blow-torch heated egg. 


European Astronomy


EWASS 2019 is to be held in Lyon, France from 24 to 28 June 2019. Of interest are 2 areas of astronomy as related to the physics of simple QED.
 
Symposium  S7: Cosmic dust (r)evolution
Title: Dark Matter does not exist because of cosmic dust  
In cosmology, galaxy velocities are inferred from redshift measurements of light emitted  from the galaxy. In a dust free Universe, redshift of galaxy light would indeed provide accurate velocities. However, dust absorbs galaxy light on  its way to the Earth, especially in the galaxy itself, causes an additional redshift thereby overstating galaxy velocities. light. causes an error velocity measurement. Indeed, the redshift in cosmic dust is significant as inferred velocities suggests Newtonian physics can no longer explain how cluster galaxies stay together.  In the 1970s, redshift measurements of the M31 galaxy inferred the galaxy clusters could only stay together as observed if dark matter was present. Since then, astronomy has conducted experiments to find dark matter, but to date has not been successful.     
The paper makes the argument dark matter does not exist because of the overstated redshift in cosmic dust.  Experiments cannot discover dark matter as the premise that high galaxy velocities based on redshift measurements is not valid. Simple QED explains the dust redshift as an expanded wavelength of the absorbed light depending on the size of the dust particle and may be verified in Earth based experiments using lasers and nanoparticles of various sizes. Newtonian mechanics is proposed to explain galaxy dynamics making a significant revision in cosmology. See abstract

Update: On April 9, 10, and 11, I received threatening emails from a Hacker who sent me emails from my Yola email address: thomas@nanoqed.org. On April 11, I was notified by EWASS 2019 that my Dark Matter abstract was not accepted for presentation. See Abstract, EWASS notification, and Hacker threats at Update Apparently, the Astronomy community does not like my allegation that Dark Matter only exists because of the measured redshift is caused by cosmic dust that effectively means Newtons mechanics governs celestial dynamics. Since Hubble, taxpayer funding of Dark Matter searches has been a fraud committed by Astronomers to satisfy their egos. Indeed, Hubble never thought the redshifts he measured were real, but Astronomers of lesser intelligence created an expanding Universe out of their own making. What we have in front of us is an Astronomical future based on false science.  Sad, but true.
 
Symposium S10: Star formation process
Title: Missing Neutrinos and Simple QED
The Missing Neutrino Problem was thought resolved by revising the standard model of the massless neutrino to consist of 3 types: electron, muon  and tau.  Experiments at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory that measured all neutrino  types did not show a deficit thereby confirming the standard neutrino model modified only for oscillating non-zero rest masses between neutrino types. However, Shrair in 2017 and others argued neutrinos need not oscillate to account for the deficit. Similarly, this paper suggests there is no Missing Neutrino Problem, i.e., the standard neutrino model is correct, but the standard solar model needs revision.  
The paper argues solar collapse produces temperatures of  6.8 million K, but to undergo fusion hydrogen atoms must increase in temperatures to 15 million K. However, simple QED claims the temperature cannot increase as QM requires the atom heat capacity to vanish. But the equivalent of temperature is EM energy E, i.e., at 6.8 million K, E = 1.5 kT = 0.87 keV. Like a 0.87 keV CW laser irradiating hydrogen atoms, the EM energy increases with 3 plasma 0.87 keV photons reaching the 2 keV required for fusion at which time a neutrino is emitted. However, EM energy absorption continues, but the hydrogen atom  is absent a higher electronic quantum state, e.g., hydrogen cannot emit X rays.  Only the size dependent simple QED state at 5.8 keV is available. Hence, the same atom  that initiates fusion at 2 keV also provides the missing source of energy in the solar model, and therefore the number of neutrinos is 2 / 5.8 = 0.34 of that expected for the solar heat produced. In conclusion, there are no missing neutrinos. The standard neutrino model is correct, but the solar model needs to be revised for simple QED. See abstract.



Missing Neutrinos and Simple QED


The sun produces energy upon fusion of hydrogen atoms. Under gravitational collapse, the high temperature at the center of the sun ionizes hydrogen atoms into a plasma of protons and electrons, but is not sufficient to initiate fusion. In classical physics, two protons cannot fuse because of Coulomb repulsion that poses a problem to fusion as the source of solar energy.  In 1928, the probability of fusion  as two protons get  close to each other was considered impossible. To overcome the improbability of protons fusing,  Gamow invoked QM to give a non-zero probability of two protons overcoming Coulomb  repulsion and momentarily could be close enough to fuse. QM stands for quantum mechanics.  About a decade later, Bethe showed the basic nuclear processes by which stars fuse hydrogen into helium in stellar interiors to be the P-P chain reaction. For a pair of hydrogen atoms, the energy E required to initiate fusion is,

2 H  = 2 He  +  electron + neutrino + E

One fusion reaction produces one neutrino. To initiate fusion, the standard solar model was a sun with a central temperature T  = 15 million degrees K corresponding to EM energy E of about 2 keV, where E = 1.5 kT and k is Boltzmann's constant. Since then, hydrogen fusion is generally thought to require  E > 2 keV, but is not available in gravitational collapse.

In 1964, Davis showed by experiment the neutrinos produced were found to be fewer, about 1/ 3 the number predicted. The standard model of neutrinos is a massless particle moving at the speed of light. Over the next decades, however, repeated experiments and predictions showed a similar deficit of neutrinos. This dilemma referred to as the Missing Neutrinos Problem was resolved by revising the standard model of the massless neutrino to consist of 3 types: electron , muon  and tau, each having different, but small masses. Moreover, the neutrino was allowed to oscillate from the electron  type in the sun to muon or tau types on its way to the Earth. Since the sun only produces electron neutrinos, and since early experiments detected only electron neutrinos, the Missing Neutrino Problem was thought resolved by claiming the missing 2/3 of muon and tau neutrinos were just not detected. More recently, SNO  experiments that measured all neutrino types: electron, muon, and tau did not show a deficit thereby confirming the standard neutrino model modified for oscillations among neutrino types. SNO stands for Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

In 2017, Shrair and others argued neutrinos need not oscillate on their way to Earth to account for the deficit. In fact, the number of solar neutrinos detected from the above experiments is the actual rate of solar electron neutrinos. What this means is there is no Missing Neutrino Problem and the standard massless neutrino model is correct while the standard solar model needs revision.

In the proposed revision,  fusion produces 1/3 of the expected number of neutrinos, but requires an additional source of non-fusion energy to supply the remaining 2/3 of the sun's power.   Gravitational collapse alone having temperatures T = 6.8 million K  or E = 0.87 keV can be dismissed as fusion requires T = 15 million K or E = 2 keV.  A non-fusion energy source to supplement gravity collapse called simple QED is proposed as illustrated in Figure 1.  Simple QED is based on real photons  altogether different from  Feynman's QED based on virtual photons


Classically, atoms have heat capacity allowing the solar collapse temperatures of 6.8 million K to increase to 15 million K and initiate fusion. But simple QED argues fusion cannot occur because QM precludes the atom from having the heat capacity to increase from solar collapse temperatures to initiate fusion. What this means is fusion does not occur by 15 million K temperatures, but rather by EM energy at 2 keV that excites the hydrogen atom to higher energy states, i.e., the EM energy E is, E = 1.5 kT = 2 keV. Similarly, EM energy of gravitational collapse E = 0.87 keV cannot initiate fusion. Therefore, fusion begins in solar collapse as hydrogen atoms absorb  3 plasma 0.87 keV photons accumulating to the 2 keV level to initiate fusion. In simple QED, the  EM confinement of plasma energy absorbed by the atom occurs because the atom's high surface to volume ratio requires all plasma photons to be deposited on the atom surface, while thermal expansion to relieve the EM confinement is precluded by QM denying an increase in surface temperature.  Neutrinos are emitted for all  2 keV fusion events, but otherwise are not emitted. Hence, neutrinos emitted from 2 keV fusion heat Qo is 1/3 of the total solar energy Q , i.e., Qo = 1/3 Q. Further absorption of the 0.87 keV photons from solar collapse increase the EM energy of the atom beyond 2 keV, but neutrinos are not emitted. Hence, the remaining 2/3 Q solar heat is produced by simple QED converting 6 solar collapse photons at 0.87 keV to 5.8 keV photons.  See Sun

In conclusion, the Missing Neutrino Problem need not be resolved by oscillations among non-zero rest masses for the electron,  muon, and tau, at least until the underlying physical mechanisms are understood.  In contrast, simple QED is based on the established Planck law of QM which requires the heat capacity of the hydrogen atom to vanish meaning the 15 million K temperature of the sun is meaningless as a basis for understanding of solar fusion, and instead fusion in the sun should be considered initiated by EM energy at 2 keV.  Nothing could be simpler. The central sun region is likened to a 0.87 keV CW laser irradiating hydrogen atoms  with a size dependent quantum state at 5.8 keV.  
 
There is no Missing Neutrino Problem. The number of neutrinos emitted  is the number of 2 keV EM fusion events and the 5.8 keV state is the upper limit of EM solar energy emitted, the number of neutrinos emitted is 2/5.8 = 0.34 or about 1/3 of that expected if neutrinos were emitted for the total solar heat. 
 
The standard model of the massless electron neutrino in the sun is correct, but the standard model of solar fusion needs revision for simple QED.  
 
The difficulty that atoms cannot  get  close to each other to initiate fusion thought resolved  by  QM allowing fusion to occur over a short time is superseded by simple QED allowing 5.8 keV photons to initiate fusion at other hydrogen atoms over a finite distance. 


Molecular Motors and Quantum Mechanics


Molecular motors - myosin, dynein, and kinesin - have been studied with regard to the mechanism by which the motors are powered.  In muscles, the myosin molecule provides the power of  contraction, while in dynein and kinesin the power transports cargo within the cell along microtubule filaments. The following is limited to kinesin, but is applicable to both myosin and dynein.   
 
The kinesin molecule has twin heads and moves towards microtubule plus end using a hand-over-hand walking action that can do work [1,2]against loads of up to 7 pN.  In the manner of Brownian motion, the motor is thought to diffuse back and forth on a spring-like tether using thermal energy from the bath to stretch out the tether, locking on to the track as the spring is stretched out, and then the motor  advances while maintaining its grip on the microtubule as the spring relaxes. In the alternative, a change in the neck linker molecular conformation is thought to convert Brownian motion to advance the motor.

The free energy of docking the neck linker to the microtubule is found [3] very small while MD simulations [4] show forces in unbinding are very large and consistent with clamp experiments. However,  MD simulations of the  conversion of thermal energy into motor motion do not show how ATP  hydrolysis produces the  energy for the power stroke that comes from thermal fluctuations. Instead, thermal energy is simply assumed to control the force developed from Brownian motion while thermal vibrations allow searching for a binding site, and during or after completion of the power stroke, thermal fluctuations dislodge the kinesin from the microtubule.  But how this occurs is not found anywhere in the literature.
 
Currently, the general belief is that Brownian motion induced by thermal fluctuations is important in the motion of kinesan motors. However, electrostatic forces from chemical additives to the bath can induce  charge to steer [5] the neck linker and coiled tether to the microtubule are also important. Indeed, additives that make the neck linker and tether more positive were found to increase motor motion while negative charge decreased the motion. However, some kinesins [6] have neutral coiled tethers, yet still show increased motion suggesting that another region of the molecule may perform this tethering role. But explanations of how electrostatics affects motor motion is not well understood. 
 

In this paper, simple QED induced EM radiation [7] produced in nanoscale structures is proposed to explain molecular motors. Simple QED is a consequence of the Planck law of QM that requires the nanoscale neck linker and coiled tether to charge positively directly from ATP binding or even from heat in the water bath. QM stands for quantum mechanics. The QM charging of the neck linker and coiled tether occurs even if chemical additives are not included in the bath as would be the case for neutral coiled tethers.  Indeed, charge is induced in all nanoscale structures because QM requires the heat capacity of atoms in the nanostructure to vanish thereby precluding any conservation of absorbed  heat by an increase in temperature.  Simple QED stands for quantum electrodynamics of real photons differing by simplicity from Feynman’'s complex virtual photons. Simple QED conserves heat from ATP hydrolysis or thermal  heat of the bath by creating EM waves that by the minimum time principle of Fermat stand across the minimum dimension of the nanostructure, e.g., across the diameter of neck linker and coiled tether.

Basic motor electrostatics is illustrated in the following Figure. Since the simple QED radiation exceeds the respective ionization potentials, electron loss charges the coil and linker positive, and since the microtubule carries a negative charge, electrostatic attraction pulls the tether downward to the microtubule. Upon contact, the neck linker acquires the negative charge of the microtubule and is repelled then allowing the neck linker to acquire a positive charge for the next microtubule contact.    
 

An enlarged view of electrostatic molecular motor mechanism is illustrated in the Figure below. The neck linker comprising Head 1 and Head 2 is shown in gray moving in the forward direction along a microtubule of α+ and β- tubulin dimers. The coiled tether shown as a black line connects the neck linker to the vesicle carrying the cargo. Head 1 on the left is shown charged negative and bound to  the first β- tubulin site, but because of subsequent mutual repulsion Head 1 is shown moving upward. Head 2 and the coiled tether are charged positive by simple QED with Head 2 attracted to bind a the second β- tubulin binding site. At this time, Head 1 in a hand-over-hand motion moves toward the third β- tubulin binding site. Since both α+ and β- tubulin dimers are about 8 nm in length, Head 1 moves  over 2 of the α+ tubulin sites or 16 nm in the forward direction.


For more detail, see preliminary Paper and Presentation

References
1. B. J. Grant, et al., Electrostatically Biased Binding of Kinesin to Microtubules, PLOS,           https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001207 (2011)
2. K. S. Thorn, et al., Engineering the Processive Run Length of the Kinesin Motor, The Journal of Cell Biology, 151, 5, 1093-–1100 (2000)
3. W. Hwang, et al., Force generation in kinesin hinges on cover-neck bundle formation, Structure 16: 62–71. (2008)
4. S. Rice, et al., Thermodynamic properties of the Kinesin neck-region docking to the catalytic core. Biophys J  84, 1844–-1854 (2003)
5. J. A. McCammon, Darwinian biophysics: Electrostatics and evolution in the kinetics of molecular binding, PNAS, 106, 19, 7683–-7684 (2009)
6. I. N. Crevel, et al., Coupled chemical and mechanical reaction steps in a processive  Neurospora kinesin. EMB, Eur.Mol. Biol. Organ.) J,18, 5863–-5872 (1999)
7. T. Prevenslik, Applications of simple QED in nanostructures. See www.nanoqed.org, 2010-2019.


Matera Obscura is a conference directed to an understanding and unveiling the nature of dark matter - the long-lasting challenge of modern astrophysics. However, dark matter requires the existence of mass about 5 times that on Earth, and moreover is invisible and cannot be observed. Because of the bizarre  nature of dark matter, it is only natural to question whether dark matter even exists. In this regard, a review of how dark matter was first thought to exist showed cosmic dust increases the redshift of galaxy light thereby highly overstating galaxy velocities to the point that a significant amount of mass was present to hold the galaxy together. Indeed, Newtonian mechanics showed clusters of galaxies should fly apart, but in fact was not observed. Since then, astronomers therefore believed dark matter existed to hold the galaxy clusters together.
 
The problem with high galaxy velocities and redshift is not new. Hubble found it difficult to believe galaxy velocities were real and instead found it easier to suppose that the lines of the spectra are shifted to the red by some property of space acting on the light during its journey to the Earth.  Later, Arp proposed the redshifts were intrinsic giving the false impression dark matter is present, when in fact it does not exist, perhaps explaining why the search for dark matter particles to date has not succeeded. Following Hubble, this paper proposes galaxy velocities are not real and cosmic dust that permeates the Universe is proposed to be Hubble's property of space that redshifts spectra lines. See Abstract
 
In conclusion, dark matter most likely does not exist. The astronomy community is recommended to conduct extensive Earth based experimental studies of redshift of laser light in various sizes of cosmic dust nanoparticles. In any evenr, a return of cosmology to Newtonian mechanics once proposed by Einstein is suggested.



The 10th Anniversary World Congress on Targeting Mitochondria will be held in Berlin on October 28-29, 2019. The themes of the Congress will focus on three major areas, the first being mitochondrial chronic diseases including aging, the second how to quantify mitochondrial dysfunction, and the third, how to target and manipulate mitochondrial function in order to develop mitochondria-based therapies.

Of general interest is mitochondrial dynamics in intracellular pathways, the emphasis here is to present an alternative to the recognized ATP synthase in chemiosmosis:

Chemiosmosis or Simple QED?

In the generation of ATP during respiration, chemiosmosis is the flow of hydrogen ions across the inner membrane of mitochondria providing power for producing work at the cellular level. However, the chemistry explanations of chemiosmosis are complex and are difficult to verify experimentally. A totally different approach to ATP synthesis based on the physics of simple QED is suggested.

ATP synthesis in mitochondria is proposed to occur by simple QED that does not depend on electron induced pumping of hydrogen ions across the inner membrane. Simple QED differs from  the QED proposed by Feynman in that real and not virtual photons stand across the matrix between adjacent cristae surfaces of folds in the inner membrane, the EM energy  at UV levels breaking oxygen double bonds to power ATP production. The source of UV is ATP energy released in the matrix. The human lung mitochondria showing the EM wave standing in the matrix between the fold formed between adjacent cristae is noted in the following figure.


In the matrix with a spacing d between adjacent cristae (50 < d  < 100 nm), the Planck energy E of the standing EM waves based on a refractive index n ~ 1.3 is beyond the UV, i.e., E ~ 5 to 10 eV thereby providing at least 500 kJ of UV radiation for every mol of ATP released. Depending on the molar concentration of oxygen in the matrix, the oxygen superoxide anion is formed by breaking the double bond of oxygen.  The oxygen anions break down carbohydrate foods, and convert ADP back to ATP.  Of importance, ATP release requires a conitnual supply of oxygen for the mitochondria to produce ATP.

In the mitochondria, simple QED is the source of hydrogen ions, i.e., the simple QED photon at 5 eV/mol of  ATP provides the matrix with about 500 kJ/mol of ATP to create hydrogen ions by breaking O-H and H-H bonds at 459 and 432 kJ/mol of O-H and H-H reactants, respectively. What this means is simple QED clearly produces hydrogen ions in mitochondria from UV radiation thereby avoiding the unlikely successive and accumulative electron absorptions in chemiosmosis. Moreover, simple QED does not depend on the pH of the intermembrane space and anions are indeed created at UV levels. For over 50 years, chemiosmosis theory made the claim that the unlikely accumlated electron absorptions pumped hydrogen ions across the inner membrane,  when in fact simple QED in the UV and beyond actually produced the hydrogen ions that power mitochondria. See preliminary Paper and Mitochondria conference Abstract


ATP by Mitochondrial induced UV


Today, chemiosmosis is the accepted synthesis of ATP in mitochondria. Enzymes in the inner membrane of mitochondria transfer electrons from the oxidation of metabolism to molecular oxygen froming superoxide anions. The phosphorylation reaction is:
 
ATP ADP + P 
 
Hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and phosphate is highly favorable in aqueous solution producing an energy release of 30.5 kJ / mol ATP. In contrast, the molecular mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation in metabolic breakdown reactions is converted into phosphate bond energy through a ‘"high-energy intermediate"’, i.e., a chemical compound generated by an enzymatic oxidation-reduction reaction capable of transferring a phosphate group to ADP. But after decades of research, the ‘"high-energy intermediate"’ was never found.
 
Chemiosmosis does not require a ‘‘"high-energy intermediate"’. Instead, respiration and phosphorylation is coupled  by an electrochemical gradient of H+ ions across the mitochondrial membrane, i.e., the flow of electrons through the respiratory enzymes is linked to a net movement of H+ across the inner mitochondrial membrane that creates a transmembrane electrochemical potential comprising an osmotic pressure and an electric field component. The electrochemical potential powers the  ATPase, an enzyme which is also located in the inner mitochondrial membrane that carries out the phosphorylation of  ADP to ATP.
 
ATP by chemiosmosis with oxidation by the electron transfer chain OR oxidation by the molecular mechanism by ‘‘"high-energy intermediate" are both based on complex chemistry that is difficult to verify experimentally. In contrast, oxidation by mitochondrial induced UV radiation is simple and understood by all. But UV is only naturally available as exogenous solar radiation outside the body -  not endogenous UV produced within the mitochondria of human cells. 

In this regard, simple QED is proposed to produce endogenous UV within the mitochondria itself. Instead of chemiosmosis, ATP is proposed produced by standing EM waves of endogenous UV as shown below. 


Simple QED differs from  the QED proposed by Feynman in that real and not virtual photons stand across the matrix between adjacent cristae surfaces of folds in the inner membrane, the EM energy  at UV levels breaking oxygen double bonds to power ATP production. Any submicron organelle produces endogenous UV provided metabolic heat is produced. In the figure below, standing EM waves are shown produced in human lung mitochondria including standing EM waves within submicrondrial particles (SMP). 

A preliminary Paper on ATP produced by endogenous UV is available.


ATP by UV radiation


Today, ATP production by chemiosmosis depends on  enzymes in the inner membrane of mitochondria which transfer electrons from the oxidation of molecular oxygen following the phosphorylation reaction:
 
ATP ADP + Pi   
 
Historically, ATP by chemiosmosis competed with the molecular mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation that relied on the conversion of metabolic heat to phosphate bond energy through a "high-energy intermediate’".  But after decades of research, the ‘"high-energy intermediate’" was never found. By default, chemiosmosis survived as the sole theory for ATP production.

In chemiosmosis, respiration and phosphorylation are coupled by an electrochemical gradient of H+ ions across the mitochondrial membrane. Nevertheless, ATP by chemiosmosis with oxidation by the electron transfer chain is based on complex chemistry that is difficult to verify experimentally. In contrast, oxidation of food molecules by UV radiation is simple and understood by all. But UV is only naturally available as exogenous solar radiation outside the body -– not endogenous UV as would be required in mitochondria of human cells inside the body. Hence, the proposal is: 
 
In mammals, simple QED produces ATP in mitochondria by endogenous UV inside the cell. Chemical reactions of ATP synthesis from ADP + Pi proceed by dehydration mediated by UV radiation.

ADP + Pi + UV ATP + H2O

In contrast, chemiosmosis by the H+ gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrrane is thought supported by the acid-bath chloroplast experiment by which ATP is producesd in plants. Similar to chemiosmosis of mitochondria, chloroplasts are thought to produce ATP from the H+ gradient across  the thylakoid membrane. The thylakoid membrane contains many submicron stacks of grana having neutral pH. But after a few hours of  incubation in an acidic bath, the grana acidifies to pH4. Rapidly changing the bath to a basic pH8 then produces a H+ gradient of pH4 across the thylakoid membrane as illustrated below,


In the 1960's, ATP researchers failed to recognize the fact a pH change is accompanied by a release in heat that increases bath temperature typical to that shown in the above plot of titration of a weak acid with NaOH. But locally, the grana cannot increase in temperature by the Planck law of quantum mechanics. Hence, the observed ATP production was not due to the H+ gradient across the inner membrane, but rather the excess heat causing the grana to locally conserve the heat by simple QED creating EM radiation beyond the UV that produces the ATP.  Simple QED relies on real photons and differs from the virtual photons in Feynman’s QED.  
 
In summary, the acid-bath experiment for chloroplasts shows ATP production in chloroplasts does not occur by a H+ gradient across the thylakoid membrane, but rather by endogenous UV produced by the heat of titration. Extended to mammalian mitochondria, ATP from chemiosmosis by H+ gradients across the inner membrane most likely does not occur, and instead ATP is synthesized from oxidation of food molecules by simple QED radiation in the UV and beyond. See Abstract


Enzyme enhanced diffusion


Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) shows the diffusivity of enzymes is enhanced in substrate-dependent manner during catalysis. FCS requires laser excitation of a fluorophore bound to the enzyme. Nuclear magnetic measurements (NMR)  differ in that enzyme diffusion is not enhanced. Since NMR does not require a fluorophore, the diffusion enhancement found in FCS based on the binding of the fluorophore is thought to be caused by dissociation from low enzyme concentrations. Alternative interpretations of FCS measurements include global temperature increase of the solution, charged product induced electrophoresis, and pH changes around the enzyme immediately following catalysis. For example, FCS shows the diffusion of catalase is enhanced upon conversion of its substrate H2O2 into water and oxygen. Similarly, global or local temperature changes of the solution may explain the enhanced enzyme diffusion phenomenon. More recently, the catalase diffusion coefficient increase is thought caused by chemotactic behaviour in which the enzyme preferentially diffuses towards higher substrate gradients. Indeed,  experiments suggest that when enzymes catalyze reactions, the heat released in the process is responsible for accelerating the proteins as observed in FCS, yet contrarily, thr enzyme  aldolase is found to have an enhanced diffusion even though it is not catalytically active.  
 
All of the mechanisms are based on classical physics. However, enzymes are nanoscopic globular proteins governed by quantum mechanics (QM) and not classical physics. Temperature fluctuations caused by catalytically induced heat  given by classical physics are precluded by the Planck law of QM as the heat capacity of the atom vanishes. At the nanoscale, metabolic heat is conserved by creating EM radiation beyond the UV that charges the enzyme by the photoelectric effect. From the QM viewpoint, the diffusion of catalytically active enzymes in their substrate may only be mediated, if at all,  by an electrostatic mechanism.  
 
In this regard, simple QED is proposed to explain enzyme enhanced diffusion.  Simple QED is based on real photons and differs from the virtual photons in Feynman’'s QED. Simple QED based on QM was developed for nanoscale heat transfer and is applicable to nanoscale globular enzyme proteins. For the ATPase enzyme, the heat Q of the catalytic reaction places interior atoms under high EM confinement that by the Planck law of QM denies the constituent ATPase atoms the heat capacity to allow conservation of Q heat by an increase in temperature. Instead, the heat Q of the reaction is conserved by creating EM radiation E beyond the UV that removes electrons from the ATPase atoms to form a nearby negative charged cloud momentarily leaving behind a positive charged ATP complex including the fluorophore (green star) as illustrated 'in the figure below.


The positive charged ATPase complex and fluorophore are electrostatically attracted to the electron cloud, the no longer bound fluorophore now free to move faster than the ATPase complex giving the impression of enhanced ATPase diffusion. A preliminary Paper on enhanced enzyme diffusion in FCS measurements is available.

In conclusion, FCS measurements of enhanced ATPase diffusion are caused by dissociation of the fluorophore from the ATPase complex upon ionization by simple QED induced EM radiation from in conserving catalytic heat. Low concentrations of ATPase used in FCS leading to enzyme dissociation are not required. The removal of electrons by simple QED  produces a momentary negative charged cloud that electrostatically attracts the dissociated fluorophore to diffuse faster than the larger ATPase complex giving the false impression of enhanced ATPase diffusion.  
 
NMR measurements avoid the fluorophore dissociation in FCS even if the enzyme is not catalytically active. In aldolase, NMR does not show enhanced diffusion as laser heating is not required. DLS does not show enhanced aldolase diffusion because the laser radiation is scattered and not absorbed to produce ionization by simple QED.

 
The 4th International Conference on Tumor & Cancer Immunology and Paediatric-Oncology-2019 is being held during October 21-22, 2019 is Amsterdam, Netherlands.The theme of the conference is:

 “Explore Innovative Research Ideas for Prevention of Cancer.”  

In this regard, the recent Monsanto litigation with an award of 2 billion USD has attractted the interest in cancer. Monsanto's herbicide RoundUp containing glyphosate is thought to produce the non-Hodgkin's lynphoma cancer, However, simple QED claims the cancer is caused by DNA damage from UV radiation produced by NPs added to RoundUp to aid glyphosate in penetrating plant leaves.  See Abstract

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