Thought for Us

The important thing is to never stop questioning

A. Einstein

The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html
Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html
Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html
Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html
Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html

Superlens by transformative optics or QED?

In conventional optics, image quality depends on the diffraction limit. Recently, transformative optics using a superlens was proposed to restore image quality below the diffraction limit, the restoration not possible with conventional optics. Currently, the superlens is thought explained by evanescent waves in meta-materials having negative permittivity in contact with a dielectric with a permittivity of equal and positive sign, although a superlens of nanoscale noble metals, e.g., silver films obviates the need for complex permittivity matching.
Regardless, the existence of thermally driven evanescent waves in near-field heat transfer is questionable because QM precludes temperature fluctuations in nanoscale films. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Hence, evanescent waves that cannot pass through a superlens of a nanoscale silver film can not explain the enhanced image quality.

In this regard, sub-diffraction-limited imaging in the superlens is proposed to be a natural consequence of QED induced EM radiation, i.e., light is created in the nanoscale silver film upon the absorption the light in  the diffraction limited P* image. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but differs from the complex relativistic QED by Feynman and others. Briefly stated:

QED conserves heat supplied to a superlens absent heat capacity by creating light having half-wavelength  λ /2 = nd, where n and d are the refractive index and thickness of the silver film.    
For PMMA having n = 1.5 illuminated with UV at 365 nm, the diffraction-limited wavelength P* for resolving periodic structures [3] is, P* = 365/1.5 = 243 nm, below which periodic spaced structures cannot be resolved. The superlens of a silver film interposed between the PMMA and the photoresist absorbs the energy of light in the diffraction-limited image P*. Since QM precludes temperature changes in the nanoscale silver film, the energy of the light in the P* diffracted image is conserved by the emission of light at wavelength λ = 2 nd, where n is the refractive index of silver at wavelength P*. Unlike evanescent waves that cannot pass through the silver film, QED induces the silver films having thiickness d = 35 nm to emit light at sub-diffraction wavelengths λ that etches the photoresist. For silver at 243 nm having n = 1.28, QED produces the sub-diffraction-limited resolution at λ = 89 nm consistent with that shown in the above Figure. See  Paper and Presentation

An audio MP3 file may be played together with the Presentation. Open both in separate windows and adjust the PPT to follow the audio.

Integrative Cancer Science and Therapeutics (ICST) is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal interested in attracting high-quality original research and reviews that present or highlight significant advances in all areas of cancer and related biomedical science. The Journal is concerned with basic, translational and clinical research, across different disciplines and areas, enhancing insight in understanding, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The journal also prioritizes clinical trials evaluating new treatments, accompanied by research on pharmacology and molecular alterations or biomarkers that predict response or resistance to treatment.

The recent controversy between Greenpeace an Nobel Laureates over the health problems in GM food prompted the proposal that the causal link between birth defects, autism, and cancer is the consequence of DNA damage from low-level UV radiation from NPs in GM food prompted the ICST article.
"Cancer by UV radiation form nanoparticles in GM food"

Indeed, we ingest large quantiiies of NPs on a daily basis in the GM food we eat. But if the DNA damage by NPs is repaired by the immune system of the individual, it is self-evident health problems do not occur. However, not all individuals are so lucky and are subject to birth defects. autism, and cancer.

What can be done?

The PONT conference will address the cardinal issues of the dark universe today, gathering a selected number of scientists working in cosmology and particle physics in the inspiring and monumental setting of Avignon. There will be a limited number of review talks by leading experts in each field and selected contributed talks, fostering thorough debates. Some time will be allocated to discussion sessions. My contribution addersses the issue of DarkMatter:
"Cosmic Dust and Dark Matter"
and argues DarkMatter does not exist. See Paper

GM Food: A Crime against Humanity?

The causal link between GM food and human health is proposed to be the scrambling of genes in DNA by low-level UV radiation upon ingestion of included adjuvant NPs. GM stands for genetically modified and NPs for nanoparticles. Modern agriculture depends on controlling weeds by spraying Roundup containing Glyphosate on crop fields. To enhance the penetration of the Glyphosate through plant leaves, NPs of POEA are included in Roundup, but the NPs also enter the food crop.

Upon ingestion, the NPs in the gut convert body heat into low-level UV radiation a known of DNA damage. If the DNA is repaired by the immune system, there is no problem. But for some people lacking iimmunity, cancer, birth defects, autism, and other health problems are likely to develop.

The UV radiation from NPs is based on quantum mechanics thereby supporting the fact experiments for decades have shown NPs damage the DNA. Yet NPs are planned to enhance future GM food supplies raising the question of whether the GM food industry is guilty of committing a crime against humanity by altering the DNA of people in the world. Moreover, the complicity of Nobel Laureates who supported the GM food industry in refuting the Greenpeace campaign against GM food is discussed. See Paper
and Presentation Also, a  MP3 file of the presentation is available. Play the MP3 file by adjusting the presentation to follow the audio.

Validity of Equipartion Theorem in MD

In MD, the equipartion theorem gives the temperature of the atom in terms of its kinetic energy. MD stands for molecular dynamics. When a molecule is heated, MD assumes all atomic motions are excited simultaneously. Recently, the RIXS method shows the X-ray photon energy may be tuned to excite vibrations of a type of atomic motion, e.g., tuning X-ray photon energy in resonance with one selective state induces symmetric stretching motion; while tuning to another state excites the bending motion. RIXS stands for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy. This is significant as chemical reactions need not be initiated by temperature, but rather by X-ray emission. Similar to RIXS, X-rays produced in heating atoms induce vibrational motion to initiate chemical reactions is an attractive alternative to temperature driven atomic motion, especially if temperatures cannot occur.
But how do heated atoms emit X-rays? 
Heating of atoms in molecules creates X-rays instead of increasing temperature. MD based on the classical equipartition theorem is thereby superseded by QM that by the Planck law denies the atom the heat capacity to increase in temperature. QM stands for quantum mechanics.  X-rays are created by QED having Planck energy E = hv. Here, h is Planck’s constant and v is frequency, v = c/2nd, where c is the velocity of light and n the refractive index of the atom. At X-ray frequencies, n = 1. Hence, colloidal gold atoms having d = 288 pm produce X-rays having E = 2.2 keV. See PressRelease
X-ray emission by atoms makes the validity of MD simulations based on the equipartition theorem problematic. Based on classical physics, MD assumes heating a molecule increases the thermal energy of the atom that is converted to its kinetic energy causing the vibrational motion of atoms. But QM governs atom motion and not classical physics.
The classical equipartion theorem in MD is depicted above. However, the equipartition theorem for a molecule of N atoms is not valid as the kinetic energy  < KE > = 3 N (KbT) / 2 cannot depend on the temperature T of the atoms as KbT of the atom vanishes by QM. 
In conclusion,
X-ray excitation by RIXS offers a method for controlling chemical reactions, but more fundamentally suggests atoms in molecules heated in a thermal bath intract with each other by X-rays and not temperatures.
Classical physics by the equipartition theorem assumed in traditional MD to derive atom motions based on temperature is not valid and requires modification for vanishing heat capacity required by QM.

MD by X-rays?

Organized by Division of Computational and Theoretical Chemistry of the European Association of Chemical and Molecular Sciences, the 11th European Conference on Theoretical and Computational Chemistry will be conducted in Barcelona from September 4 to September 7, 2017.
By the equipartition theorem, MD assumes heating a molecule increases the temperature of the atoms that is converted to their momenta causing the vibrational motion of atoms, the changes in atomic positions initiating chemical reactions. However, the Planck law of QM precludes any increase in atom temperature because the heat capacity of the atom vanishes under the EM confinement induced by their high surface-to-volume ratios. QM stands for quantum mechanics.
Recently, RIXS has been tuned to excite specific types of vibrational motion, e.g., X-ray photons can be tuned to symmetric stretching while other tunings excite bending modes. RIXS stands for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy. This is significant as chemical reactions need not be initiated by thermally induced changes in atom positions, but rather by X-rays, especially since temperatures in atoms are precluded by QM. See  Abstract and Press Release

Vibrational control of atoms by X-rays makes MD simulations based on the equipartition theorem problematic. Modifications to MD consistent with QM are presented See  Presentation

X-ray Diffraction

Over a century ago, Debye and Waller explained the reductions in X-ray scattering peaks by atomic disorder created in the perfect lattice by thermal fluctuations. More recently, X-ray diffraction of 100 fs 800 nm optical laser pulse heating 160 nm Ge films showed reflectivity abruptly reduced from that expected by Debye-Waller suggesting the film loses crystalline order by rapid NT melting and not by thermal fluctuations. In the above figure, the abrupt reduction in reflectivity is shown to be prompt occuring in less than a few hundred femtoseconds which means the mechanism cannot be thermal in origin. Hence, the mechanism can only be NT or nothermal.  
In the X-ray diffraction using thin film samples, both Debye-Waller and NT melting depending on atom temperature are questionable because  the Planck law of QM precludes any increase in  atom temperatures, let alone high electron Te temperatures, because the heat capacity of the atoms through the film thickness vanishes under high EM confinement, the latter a consequence of the high surface-to-volume ratios that confine the heat absorbed heat to both film surfaces.  QM stands for quantum mechanics.  
Instead, QED conserves the surface heat in both surfaces by creating EM radiation having half-wavelength λ/2 = d standing across the thickness d of the thin film. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but is a simple form of the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feynman and others. By simple QED, EM radiation is created from surface heat having Planck energy E = hv, i.e.,  h is Planck’s constant and v is frequency, v = (c/n) / λ = c/2nd, where the velocity of light c is corrected for the slower speed in the solid state by the refractive index n of the thin film.
Since QED induced EM radiation in thin films having d < 100 nm is sufficient  for photoionization, the  electron loss > 11%  in the sample causes the prompt reduction in reflectivity observed. NT melting does not occur, and instead, the disorder of charged solid atoms in a loosely bound state of Coulomb repulsion mimics melting. Thicker samples follow the same trend, but electron loss is reduced. Moreover, all lower thin film quantum states, including the surface plasmon resonances commonly observed in the VIS and NIR, are excited by fluorescence. See diverse QED applications at http://www.nanoqed.org , 2010-2017.
In conclusion, QM by the Planck law precludes thermal fluctuations in thin films by Debye-Waller as the source of atomic disorder in X-ray diffraction. Similarly QM denies NT melting based on electron-phonon coupling and homogenous nucleation in superheated solids.  
Observations of both reductions in X-ray scattering peaks and reflectivity in thin films is caused by atomic disorder from the simple QED conversion of heat absorbed from exciting laser and X-ray pulses into EM radiation that ionizes the film atoms.
NT melting by electron-phonon coupling based on ab-initio MD simulations that admit to temperature changes contrary to the Planck law need to be reviewed.

See PressRelease

QED induced X-ray Cancer Treatment

Recently, gold NPs adjacent cancer tumors are found to enhance necrosis by taking advantage of the increased absorption of gold compared to soft tissue. NPs stand for nanoparticles having dimensions < 100 nm. However, the high absorptivity of gold is of little consequence as little if any X-rays are absorbed in NPs. Indeed, X-ray absorption of gold NPs in water is shown to be negligible and almost totally dominated by the far larger dimensions of the water surroundings.

What this means is X-ray absorption in gold NPs is not the cause of cancer necrosis, but rather necrosis is somehow caused by the heating of NPs from the X-rays absorbed in the surrounding water perhaps explaining the current discrepancy in the LEM between X-ray doses and observed cancer cell necrosis,

Currently, NP temperatures are of great controversy. Absorption cross sections at the incident power levels typical of RF-GHZ experiments show increases in temperature cannot occur in NPs. In contrast, simulations [3] based on classical physics have claimed temperature changes of 30 – 40 °C occur consistent with liver cancer cell experiments after targeting those cells with gold NPs and exposure to RF fields, but QM governs the nanoscale. QM stands for quantum mechanics.

QM given by the Planck law precludes any increase in NP temperature let alone 30 - 40 C because the heat capacity of the NP atoms vanishes as the high surface-to-volume ratios of NPs confine the heat from the surroundings to the NP surfaces. EM stands for electromagnetic. Instead, QED momentarily creates EM radiation having half-wavelength λ/2 = d standing across the diameter d of the NP. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but is a simple form of the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feynman and others.

Since the standing EM radiation from the UV to X-rays is created from the NP surface heat, the EM radiation propagates into the surroundings once the surface heat vanishes. Only heat from the surroundings produces the EM emission. See the above figure. The QED radiation has Planck energy E = hv in the UV and beyond that damages the DNA halting the growth of the cancer cells by precluding reproduction. Here, h is Planck's constant and v is frequency, v = (c/n) / λ = c/2nd, where c is the velocity of light and n the refractive index of the NP.

Given that cancer necrosis may only occur as gold NPs are heated upon absorption of X-rays in surrounding water while DNA damage is usually thought to occur at UV levels from 3 to 8 eV, the Planck energy E of the QED radiation for gold NP having index n = 1.5 and diameters d from 1 to 100 nm is presented in PressRelease  The UV-C level of 254 nm having Planck energy E = 4.88 eV produced in 85 nm gold NPs corresponds to the formation of the pyrimidine dimers that block DNA replication in all living systems.

For NPs to create X-rays, QED requires NPs < 1 nm. But even the 85 nm NPs produce X-rays because QED radiation charges all NPs positive as electrons are lost by the photoelectric effect. Coulomb repulsion between positive charged atoms then fragments the NP into smaller and smaller fragments with increasing EM emission frequency until the fragments < 1 nm are formed whereby X-rays are produced.

In conclusion, classical physics as the traditional method for estimating NP temperatures under X-ray radiation are not valid. QM governs the nanoscale.

QM requires the heat capacity of atoms in NPs vanish denying conservation of heat from X-ray induced heating of the surrounding water by an increase in temperature.

Instead, QED conserves the heat from X-ray induced heat in the surrounding water by creating EM radiation inside the NPs instead of increasing their temperatures. However, the EM radiation charges the atoms by removing electrons which induces Coulomb repulsion between all atoms forming a state of hydrostatic tension that fractures the NPs. Subsequently, the heated fragments fracture to produce even progressively higher frequency EM emission. Hence, the gold NPs generate their own source of X-rays.

Hyperthermia Cancer Treatment?

Hyperthermia cancer treatment is based on high temperatures from heat produced in exposing iron-oxide NPs to an alternating magnetic field. Classical heat transfer suggests there should not be any advantage to placing the NPs in the cell as the surface temperature of a NP should be close to that of its surroundings. However, magnetic heating is known to be far more effective in killing cancer cells than hyperthermia using a hot water bath.This disparity is explained by magnetically heated NPs having significantly higher surface temperatures. To confirm this, the NPs were coated with a temperature sensitive fluorescent polymer and placed in 20 ºC water. When the water was externally heated, the fluorescence intensity was not observed until temperatures reached about 35?°C. However, upon heating the NPs in a magnetic field, the fluorescence intensity was observed to increase immediately. Hence, the magnetic heating of the NP was concluded to have higher surface temperature than that of the water, thereby explaining the greater effectiveness of magnetic heating in killing cancer cells.
But there is a problem with this explanation..
Upon heating a magnetic NP, the Planck law of QM precludes any increase in NP temperature, surface or otherwise, because the heat capacity of the NP atoms vanishes under high EM confinement, the latter a consequence of the high surface-to-volume ratios that confines the heat absorbed from the magnetic field to the NP surface. QM stands for quantum mechanics..
The Planck law of QM at 300 K giving the average energy <E> of the atom similar to heat capacity as a function of the EM confinement wavelength λ is depicted in the above figure. Classical physics allows the atom to have heat capacity, depicted by the horizontal line from the macroscale beyond λ > 1000 microns to the nanoscale < 0.1 microns. QM differs by only allowing the atom to have heat capacity for   λ > 100 microns, otherwise the atom has diminished heat capacity. NPs of nanoscale dimensions with EM confinement wavelengths λ  < 0.1 microns are observed to have vanishing heat capacity .
The NP by lacking heat capacity cannot conserve magnetic heat absorbed in the NP surface by an increase in temperature. Instead, QED creates EM radiation from the surface heat having half-wavelength λ /2 = d standing across the diameter d of the NP. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but is a simple form of the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feynman and others. By simple QED, EM radiation is created from surface heat having Planck energy E = hv. Here, h is Planck's constant and v is frequency, v = (c/n)/ λ = c/2nd, where the velocity of light c is corrected for the refractive index n of the NP. The EM radiation excites all lower NP quantum states, including the surface plasmon resonances commonly observed in the VIS and NIR.  
Cancer necrosis from magnetically heated NPs does not occur by high temperatures, but rather by QED induced EM radiation. The EM radiation created with Planck energy E inside the NP excites all lower NP quantum states, e.g., the iron-oxide NPs having d = 52 nm and n = 2.9 are excited by QED to E = 4.1 eV at λ = 300 nm which is in the UV-B region known to induce necrosis by precluding DNA reproduction of cancer cells.  
In conclusion, cancer treatment by magnetically heated NPs does not occur by hyperthermia, but rather by QED induced EM radiation in the UV and beyond. See PressRelease

Causal relation between GM foods and Cancer

Nanotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials. Because of quantum size effects and large surface area to volume ratio, nano materials have unique properties compared with their larger counterparts. Nanotoxicology is a branch of bionanoscience which deals with the study and application of toxicity of nanomaterials. Nanomaterials, even when made of inert elements like gold, become highly active at nanometer dimensions. Nanotoxicological studies are intended to determine whether and to what extent these properties may pose a threat to the environment and to human beings.  
Indeed, nanotoxicology studies of NPs in GM foods is often correlated with human health problems including cancer and birth defects. NPs stand for  nanoparticles and GM for genetically modified. However, the causal relation between NPs and human health problems is not understood.  
In this paper, NPs of glyphosate used in weed killers that aid in penetrating plant leaves enter the crop and upon human ingestation in the gut produce low-level UV radiation that damages nearby DNA, the scrambled genes eventually leading to a myriad of health problems. See Abstract

Dark Matter as Redshift in Cosmic Dust

Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) experiments suggesting dark matter does not exist are consistent with the argument that the long-standing galaxy rotation problem may be resolved without the need for dark matter if the redshift measurements giving the higher than expected galaxy velocities are corrected for the  redshift in cosmic dust. Because of the ubiquity of cosmic dust, all velocity measurements in astronomy based on redshift are most likely overstated, e.g., an accelerating Universe expansion need not exist if data showing supernovae brighter than expected based on the redshift/distance relation is corrected for the redshift in dust.
Today, cosmology is of great interest with regard to dark matter and Universe expansion, both relying on galaxy velocities computed by the Doppler Effect using the usual redshift measurements. Given that cosmic dust affects the redshift measurements, the following conclusions are made.
Dark Matter

The spiral galaxy M31 has a flat velocity profile from the bulge to the edge while Newtonian mechanics give a decreasing velocity with radius. By QED redshift, the rotation problem is resolved. The M31 spectra of galaxy light in an edge-on view gives nearly constant redshift along the radius because of about same volume of cosmic dust between the galaxy and the observer. Therefore, the Doppler effect gives the flat velocity profile. What this means is Newton’s equations are valid provided corrections are made for cosmic dust. In effect, the existence of dark matter is highly unlikely.

Prior to the WIMP search for dark matter by LUX, the MOND theory based on spatially dependent gravitation force – laws was considered the leading explanation of dark matter. MOND stands for modified Newtonian dynamics. For spiral galaxies, MOND does reproduce the galaxy rotation curves. But for elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, galaxy clusters, and larger-scale structures, MOND does not fit observations. Moreover, MOND also requires dark matter. Instead of just using WIMP to explain observations throughout the Universe, MOND requires both spatially dependent WIMPs and gravitational-force laws, an unlikely proposition given the inability of LUX to find WIMPs.
Interestingly, the presence of dark matter has been inferred by kinematic measurements of redshifted star positions. However, if the kinematics is based on actual star positions excluding redshift, dark matter is insignificant consistent with the corrections for QED redshift.
More exotically, there is still no compelling evidence that PBHs provide dark matter. PBH stands for primordial black holes. However, standard BHs known to exist may be used to assess PBHs, but even this is questionable. BHs stand for black holes. To determine the mass of a standard BH, the velocity of orbiting stars again rely on redshift measurements. However, the star velocities may be only a few hundred km/s that by the Doppler Effect correspond to Z < 0.005. Therefore, high precision spectroscopy is required to resolve the redshift wavelength which may only be a fraction of a nanometer. Therefore, the extension of large masses predicted in standard BHs to speculative PBHs needs to be critically reviewed for QED redshift in cosmic dust
Accelerating Universe Expansion
Since Hubble’s discovery of galaxy redshift, an expanding Universe has dominated astronomy. However, by correcting for the redshift in cosmic dust, Hubble might have allowed astronomy to proceed on the basis of Newtonian mechanics instead of Einstein’s general relativity of an expanding Universe that today is thought to explain a Universe with an accelerating expansion
In 2001, the most distant Type Ia SN having a redshift of Z = 1.7 was found brighter than expected and interpreted that it was closer to us than indicated by the redshift/distance relationship. SN stands for Supernovae. Later 10 more distant SN were all found brighter than expected. Since dust can only make SN dimmer, but never brighter, the brighter SN explained by accelerated Universe expansion.  
It is correct that cosmic dust can never make the SN brighter, but incorrect to conclude dust does not redshift SN light. The redshift/distance relationship assumes Z = ZV and not   Z = ZV + ZD, where ZV and ZD are the redshifts of the recession velocity and cosmic dust.  If redshift Z is not corrected for dust ZD, the brightness B(ZV) is greater than at B(ZV+ZD) consistent with that the SN appears is closer to us than expected from the distance based on the relationship with redshift. However, if the redshift Z is corrected for QED redshift ZD, the brightness B(ZV+ZD) is the same as expected B(ZV) from the redshift/distance relationship. What this means is the accelerating Universe is not physical, but rather an anomaly of QED redshift. See Paper and Presentation

Redshift-Space Distortions in Cosmic Dust

The Sexten Center for Astrophysics is holding a workshop on Luminous- and Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs/ULIRGs) on July 3 - 7. Of interest is the IR output of the galaxies is powered by dust absorption and re-emission of photons originating in bursts of star formation.

In this regard, galaxy light is shown to redshift upon absorption in NPs of cosmic dust. NPs stand for nanoparticles. In classical physics, the NP temperature increases upon absorbing galaxy light, but QM governs the nanoscale. QM stands for quantum mechanics. By QM, the atom heat capacity vanishes in NPs, and therefore the heat of galaxy light cannot be conserved by an increase in temperature. Instead, conservation proceeds by a simplified form of QED producing standing EM radiation inside the NP. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics and EM for electromagnetic. But the NP requires EM confinement for QED to convert the heat into standing EM waves, the EM confinement relying on the high S/V ratio of NPs. S/V stands for surface-to-volume. Because of the high S/V ratio of NPs, almost all of the heat of galaxy light is deposited in the NP surface thereby providing the momentary EM confinement of NP atoms necessary to create the standing EM radiation. Once the surface heat is depleted in creating the standing EM radiation, there no longer is any EM confinement and the standing EM radiation is emitted to the surroundings travelling  to the Earth as QED redshifted galaxy light. 

In this paper, QED redshift corrections for cosmic dust is extended to removing observational effects from spectroscopic measurements in clustering of galaxies in Redshift-Space Distortions (RSD). See Abstract

Cosmic Dust and Dark Matter

The European Week of Astronomy and Space Science (EWASS) is the annual meeting of the European Astronomical Society (EAS). With more than 20 years of tradition, it is the largest conference for European astronomy.

In special session SS12 on Dust across the Universe, galaxy velocity measurements are claimed overstated because of QED redshift in cosmic dust above  that given by Doppler redshfit thereby  suggesting dark matter is necessary to hold the galaxies together. But if the measured redshift is corrected for QED redshift in dust, the galaxy velocities given by the Doppler effect are consistent with Newtonian mechanics. What this means is dark matter does not exist. Cosmic dust is also shown to explain other historical astronomical observations. See Abstract

Steam from Nanoparticles Heated by Sunlight

Light absorbing NPs immersed in water and illuminated by IR light are found capable of generating steam without the necessity of heating the entire fluid volume. The NP separations in water are unlikely to be less than a few microns suggesting the NPs are optically and thermally isolated from each other as EM confinement requires NP spacings less than the wavelength of the IR photons.  Moreover, the temperature increase at the surface of the NPs is known to not exceed nominal water temperatures and cannot produce steam. In this arrangement, light trapping by NPs has been proposed to produce steam as IR light is absorbed and scattered passing through a random ensemble of NPs, the validity of which is thought confirmed based on classical MC simulations. MC stands for Monte-Carlo.  
But QM governs the nanoscale and not classical physics. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Classical MC assumes the NPs have heat capacity, or kT energy. By the Planck law of QM,  however, NPs having high S/V ratios place the NP atoms under high EM confinement thereby precluding the heat capacity necessary for NPs to increase in temperature. S/V stands for surface-to-volume.  Hence, NP temperatures cannot increase above nominal water temperature that suggest MC simulations of steam generation from IR radiation in NP dispersions are meaningless.  
But if so, how do NPs conserve IR laser heat?   
Since IR laser heat cannot be conserved by increasing NP temperatures, QED conserves the surface heat in NPs  by creating EM radiation having half-wavelength λ /2 = d standing across the diameter d of the NP. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but is a simple form of the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feynman and others. By simple QED, EM radiation is created from surface heat having Planck energy E = hv, i.e.,  h is Planck’s constant and v is frequency, v = (c/n) / λ  = c/2nd, where the velocity of light c is corrected for the slower speed in the solid state by the refractive index n of the NP. Once the NP surface heat is expended in forming the standing waves, the EM confinement vanishes and the QED induced photon escapes into the water.
The application of QED induced EM radiation in NPs having d < 100 nm is illustrated above shows the wavelength dependence of the absorption of water. The inset shows the IR laser directed downward in the direction of gravity onto the surface of liquid water causes a vertical temperature gradient that induces natural convection in the water  showing the NPs (black circles) to aggregate  at the air-water interface. IR laser heat absorbed by the NPs is shown to be induced by QED to produce EUV radiation. EUV stands for extreme ultraviolet.
The usual 80 nm silicate NPs have n = 1.5  produce UV at  λ = 240 nm which the thumbnail shows is far less absorbent in water than the IR at λ = 808 nm.  But the tests were performed with scattering NPs that are small with respect to wavelength of light and textured to be optically soft having n = 1. Hence, the scattering NPs emit EUV radiation at  λ = 160 nm. The figure shows water absorption in the EUV is 4 orders of magnitude greater than the IR at 808 nm. What this means is the IR heat absorbed by the NPs is very efficiently absorbed by water, thereby significantly increasing the local water temperature to explain the production of steam at the air-water interface. See  PressRelease  
QM by the Planck law precludes absorbed IR laser heat from increasing NP temperatures. Instead, NPs conserve IR laser heat by QED inducing EM radiation standing across the
NP diameter. For scattering NPs, EUV radiation is produced that is efficiently absorbed in water allowed the formation of steam at the air-water interface.  
Unfortunately, the Planck law of QM now over a century old has been ignored today by the nanotechnology community. Indeed, the number of citations in exceeds 50,000 suggesting the spread of fake news that classical physics explains heat transfer in NPs, the consequence of which may have legal consequences for subsequent  health damages incurred, e.g., the use of NPs in the treatment of cancer by hyperthermia does not kill cancer by high temperature, but  rather by the UV emitted from the NPs which in and of itself causes collateral DNA damage that if not prepared by the immune system may lead to future cancers.   

Disinfectant Drinking Bowl


Disclosed is a germicidal UV radiation device for disinfecting pathogens in drinking water without electricity using a hand-held bowl provided with a nanoscale silver coating that produces UV radiation powered only by body heat from the palm of the hand. The source of UV radiation embodies a bowl with a 100 nm silver coating at the water interface that converts body heat produces UVC radiation having a wavelength of about 254 nm that disinfects the water in the bowl of pathogens. Unlike anti-microbial coatings that require contact of the pathoge, the silver coating emits UVC radiation that disinfects pathogens at a distance in the water.


This invention relates to the disinfection of water in a drinking bowl held in the palm of the hand disinfecting pathogens with UVC radiation source powered only by body heat. No electricity needed.


Contaminated drinking water is Universal.  WHO/UNICEF estimates almost 1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water. Even if bottled water is available, the consumer never knows if it is indeed safe. The most direct water disinfection is by boiling, but except for water boiling units in restaurants is not available to the individual consumer at the point of use. Unequivocally, water purification by filtration at the point of use is desirable. Water purifiers require pumping through ceramic or resin filters coated with silver NPs. NP stands for nanoparticle.  Silver NPs are known to provide antimicrobial action by damaging the DNA of bacteria, but NPs that come off the filter and enter the body also  damage human DNA that if not repaired, may lead to cancer.

In contrast, UVC disinfection of drinking water outside the body avoids the danger of cancer posed by NPs in filters. Currently, LEDs in the UVC are thought to provide the individual with point of use disinfection of drinking water, but still require a source of electrical power. LEDs stand for light emitting diodes.

UVC radiation can deactivate pathogens such as anthrax, smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, pneumonic plague, tularemia and drug resistant tuberculosis.

However, filters and LEDs require sources of electricity that are not always available, especially in the developing world.  Therefore, it is desirable to invent a device that produces UVC radiation to disinfect drinking water without an external source of electricity. In the instant invention, a photograph of the hand-held drinking bowl is shown above. Details of the invention are given in Disclosure

Solicitation of Disinfectant Bowl development is given in Freelancer


Winful's Argument

The Hartman effect suggests superluminal velocities as the evanescent tunneling time tends to a constant for large barriers. With evanescent tunneling, the barrier is the gap between double prisms. When the prisms are in contact, the light passes straight through, but when there is a gap, the light may either tunnel across or follow the refracted path. Since the time for light to travel across large gaps is found to be the same as for short gaps, the Hartman effect has been interpreted to suggest the photons have crossed the gap with superluminal velocity.  
However, Winful argued non-propagating evanescent waves are virtual photons that do not propagate across the gap into the outside world, but over time accumulate energy until the barrier is breached. Once corrected for the delay time,  the light in the Hartman effect is not superluminal.  
Winful'’s argument is problematic. The accumulated energy of evanescent waves necessary to breach the barrier is STILL evanescent and cannot propagate across the gap. What this means is tunneling of photons through the double prism gap occurs by a more fundamental mechanism that converts non-propagating evanescent photons into propagating photons. Here, the mechanism proposed is QED tunneling, where QED is simplified form of the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feyman and others. See PressRelease and forthcoming OSA Paper.

The Eleventh International Congress on Engineered Material Platforms for Novel Wave Phenomena – Metamaterials 2017 at the Institut Fresnel of Marseille providing a forum to share metamaterials research in the engineering, physics, applied mathematics and material science communities. 
In the Paper:
"Superlensing by QED"
QED induced sub-diffraction-limited imaging is produced with a 35 nm nanoscale silver lens using the light from a  diffraction-limited image in a 40 nm PMMA spacer. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but is a simplified from the complex relativistic QED of light-mattter interaction by Feynman and others.

In the  Paper, the QED of thin films is extended to EUV lithography. Difficulties in extending Moore’s law to 13.5 nm may be traced to LPP lithography. LPP stands for Laser Produced Plasma. Based on classical physics, EUV light is currently produced from the atomic emission filtered from ionization of atoms at high temperature. LPP uses high power CO2 lasers to heat solid and gas targets that after reflection from the large 100 cm mirror is filtered to produce EUV. See  PressRelease
In contrast, QED induced EUV lithography based on QM offers a far simpler and inexpensive way to extend Moore’s law. The EUV source comprises an ordinary 10 cm spherical glass lens provided on the front surface with a 5 nm silver coating. A heater on the back surface allows heat to flow into the coating, but QM precludes any increase in the coating temperature. Instead, QED converts the heat into the coating to a steady EUV light source. Lasers are not required. See PressRelease

WGC-2017 Hong Kong to Macao

BIT's 8th World Gene Convention-2017 (WGC-2017) will be held during November 13-15, 2017 in Macao, China. WGC-2017highlights new developments in the field of Gene, Biotechnology and Life Sciences. In this regard, the genotoxicity of GM foods is of great importance.  GM stands for genetically modified.
In GM food, modern agriculture controls weeds by spraying Roundup containing water and Glyphosate onto crop fields. To enhance Glyphosate penetration through weed leaves, POEA is usually included in Roundup. POEA stands for polyoxyethyleneamine. But weeds alone cannot be sprayed and the POEA enters the leaves of contiguous corn and soybean crops as an nano-emulsion of NP globules that finally reside in the plant crop. NP stands for nanoparticle. By classical physics, metabolic heat in the gut upon digestion of GM food increases the NP temperature. But QM differs. QM stands for quantum mechanics.
Indeed, the Planck law of QM precludes the atom from having the heat capacity under high EM confinement. Conservation of metabolic heat in NPs therefore cannot occur by an increase in temperature. But NP atoms are placed under high EM confinement because of high surface-to-volume ratios requiring heat to be absorbed in their suface. Surface heat is then conserved by creating UV radiation standing across the NP diameter.  But once surface heat in creating the UV is depleted, the EM confinement vanishes and the standing wave is free to enter the surroundings. Hence, genotoxicity of GM food is caused by DNA damage by UV radiation from NPs which if not repaired by the immune system may lead to birth defects, autism, and cancer. Indeed, the UV radiation from NPs explains DNA damage found in experiments over the past decade. Discussed is whether the genotoxicity of GM food in altering the DNA of the people in the world is  a crime against humanity. See Abstract

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