Quotations


Thought for Us


Imagination is more important than knowledge


A. Einstein

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Buchalter Cosmology Prize



The Buchalter Cosmology Prize was conceived on the premise that there are still fundamental gaps in our understanding of cosmology and that currently-accepted paradigms such as inflation and dark energy are incomplete, and possibly even incorrect descriptions of our Universe. It was created to stimulate ground-breaking theoretical, observational, or experimental work in cosmology that challenges, extends, or illuminates current models and/or helps explain the cosmic expansion from first principles. The ultimate goal is to help spur the formulation of a broader cosmological theory that explains current observations, puts forth testable new predictions, and fundamentally advances our understanding of physics. The Cosmology Prize will be awarded in January 2018
 
Today, cosmology is based on Einstein's expanding Universe beginning with Hubble's discovery of an expanding Universe from redshift measurements of receding galaxies. The notion of dark matter evolved because Newton's mechanics could not explain how clusters of galaxies are held together under the high velociites inferred by measurements of redshift. For a brief history of dark matter see PressRelease  
 
The instant Buchalter Cosmology paper argues cosmic dust causes galaxy velocities inferred by redshift measurements to be overstated, and if corrected for cosmic dust would show clusters of galaxies are held together by Newtonian mechanics. What this means is the Universe is not expanding, but rather is indeed static and dynamic as Einstein once thought.  See Paper.



Invalidity of Thermal Fluctuations


Thermal fluctuations although valid for macroscopic structures based on the FDT of electrodynamics including the formation of evanescent waves are shown invalid at the nanoscale as the Planck law of QM precludes the atoms in NS from fluctuating in temperature. FDT stands for fluctuation dissipation theorem, QM for quantum mechanics, and NS for nanostructures. Unlike the conservation of heat at the macroscale by raising the temperature, QM requires the conservation of heat at the nanoscale to proceed by creating EM radiation within NS. See Abstract


Charge Manipulation of Flow


The manipulation of flow in nanochannels by charge is thought confirmed by numerous MD simulations of flow by single file of molecules interacting with the interior of CNTs through L-J potentials. MD stands for molecular dynamics, CNT for carbon nanotubes, and L-J for Lennard-Jones. However, MD simulations have  anomalous findings: The flow can be stopped by placing a static positive charge near the outside of the CNT suggesting the the flow is somehow charged. Moreover, vibrating the charge can increase the flow. Vibrating charge shows flow is maximum at NIR frequencies suggesting the breakage of hydrogen bonds with CNT walls having energies of 20 kJ/mol. NIR stands for near infrared.  However, experiments confirming the validity of the MD model of molecules suspended on hydrogen bonds do not exist. Regardless,

A different MD model is proposed.

Since nanochannel cross-sections have at least one  dimension < 100 nm, the molecules upon entering the nanochannel are exposed to EM radiation originating because  QM precludes the heat from the surroundings from being conserved by raising the temperature of the nanochannel. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Indeed, the wavelength of the EM radiation standing across the < 100 nm dimension of the nanochannel is < 200 nm having Planck energy > 6 eV which is sufficient to remove electrons from atoms in most molecules including the inside surface of the CNT wall.

What this means is the hydrogen bonds do not break by the flow, but are broken by EM radiation, the electrons removed by the photoelectric effect leaving a flow of positive charged atoms with the CNT surface also charged positive. Nanochannel flow is therefore significantly enhanced above classical Hagen-Poiseuille theory because Coulomb repulsion between the atoms as well as the CNT wall avoids frictional contact and therefore viscosity vanishes with the flow of positive charged atoms approaching a frictionless condition bounded by the Bernoulli equation. MD simulations are performed for a single-file flow of positive charged atoms that show water flow in CNTs can be manipulated with static and vibrational positive charges. See Paper and Presentation



Nanoparticle Catalysts


Hydrogen is a clean and renewable energy source, but requires a cost-effective method of storage and transport suggesting a mobile system where the hydrogen is generated directly from water at the point of use. Recently, a H-Al system has attracted considerable attention. H-Al stands for hydrogen-aluminum. However, a passive Al2O3 film develops on Al surfaces upon exposure to water that inhibits the hydrogen production. Methods  directed to the disruption of the Al2O3 film have been proposed for hydrogen generation using Al with water.

In the uniform corrosion model, the Al2O3 film is thought  disrupted by hydration when 22 nm NPs of TiO2 are added to the water. NPs stand for nanoparticles. The thumbnail shows a TiO2 NP contacting an Al particle coated with a Al2O3 film. Water is shown to dissociate into H+ and OH- ions, the highly reactive OH- ions combining with the Al2O3 film to produce the intermediary Al (OH)3 that disrupts the Al2O3 film. Alternatively, the Al (OH)3 was directly synthesized into NPs of 50-90 nm diameter x 10 nm thick platelets.

The problemis the uniform corrosion mode does not explain how the TiO2  and Al (OH)3 NPs dissociate water into H+ and OH- ions, the dissociation requiring at least EM radiation in the UV of about 5 eV. Until then, the corrosion model must be considered questionable.

In this regard, the source of hydroxyl OH - ions in the uniform corrosion model is proposed to be the catalytic action of TiO2 and Al (OH)3 NPs in producing EM radiation that lowers the activation energy to disrupt the Al2O3 film. A similar situation arises in the creation of UV radiation upon the IR heating of silicate NPs in water producing steam without boiling. See Press Release

Physically, NPs do not naturally emit UV, but TiO2 and Al (OH)3 NPs do convert heat from the surroundings into UV radiation if the heat capacity of the NPs somehow vanishes. Classically, NPs have heat capacity, but QM differs as the heat capacity of the atom given by the Planck law does indeed vanish under high EM confinement. QM stands for quantum mechanics. But high EM confinement is inherent in NPs upon absorbing heat because their high S/V ratios confine the heat to the NP surface. S/V stands for surface-to-volume. NP atoms are therefore placed under high EM confinement and their heat capacity vanishes. Lacking heat capacity, the heat may only be conserved by a non-thermal mechanism suggested here as simple QED.

Simple QED differs from the complex theory advanced by Feynman in that heat is conserved in NPs by creating non-thermal EM radiation standing across the NP diameter d as the heat adjusts to the EM confinement bounded by the NP surface. Hence, the EM radiation has half-wavelength λ/2 = d. The speed of light c corrected for the refractive index n of the NP gives the Planck energy E = h(c/n)/ λ = hc/2nd.

In application, the  titanium dioxide TiO2 NPs having d = 22 nm and n = 2.5 gives 2nd = 110 nm. The absorption of 110 nm EM radiation in water is high as shown below inthe absorption spectrum for water. Water is therefore dissociated and hydroxyl ions are available to disrupt the Al2O3 film .


The Al (OH)3 NPs as platelets differ from the near spherical TiO2 NPs in that all dimensions difffer. Consistent with conserving heat in minimum time, simple QED dissipates EM radiation in the mode of the highest frequency which corresponds to the 10 nm thickness direction. But after synthesis, the platelets are generally attached by their flat sides to Al particles, and in effect, the high frequency EM radiation is quenched, and therefore the direction of EM dissipation is across the platelet diameter. Taking the average diameter d = 70 nm and n = 1.5 gives 2nd = 210 nm, but as shown above the absorption in water is low and OH - ion production is inefficient. However, at d = 50 nm, 2nd = 150 nm and the absorption is high , and therefore  water is efficiently dissociated with OH - ions available to disrupt the Al2O3 film. See Press Release

In conclusion, the uniform corrosion model that relies on a source of hydroxyl OH- ions to disrupt the Al2O3 film is supported by the catalytic action of TiO2 and Al (OH)3 NPs that convert heat in the surroundings into EM radiation to dissociate the water molecules, and

The TiO2  and Al (OH)3 NPs do not change during the Al–water reaction, indicating that they are in fact true catalysts to assist the reaction of Al with water.


EWASS-2018



Dark Matter only Exists because of Cosmic Dust


Engaging the public with astronomy and space science research is difficult because complex explanations by scientific experts are not understood by the common person. This is especially relevant in cosmology where astronomers claim dark matter exists having a mass about 5 times that of what we observe on Earth, but is invisible and cannot be observed! Because of the unusual and perhaps bizarre nature of dark matter claims, it is only natural for the public to question whether the astronomy community is taking advantage of the taxpayer who is paying for meaningless research.

Nevertheless, astronomers do admit there are still fundamental gaps in our understanding of cosmology and that currently accepted paradigms such as dark matter are incomplete and perhaps even incorrect descriptions of our Universe. Consistent with the scientific background of the public, my paper is not complex theoretical work and can be understood with knowledge of basic physics with deductions from the well-known Planck law of quantum mechanics formulated over a century ago. I argue that Hubble overstated the expansion of the Universe based on velocities inferred from the redshift of light from receding galaxies because Hubble's measurements included an additional redshift as the light is absorbed by the intervening cosmic dust on its way to the Earth. Because the overstated velocities were significant, astronomers concluded invisible dark matter must be present to hold the Universe together.

Regardless, my challenge to current cosmology is based on first principles that can be confirmed by experiment and understood by the public thereby refuting over nearly a century of erudite, but otherwise erroneous explanations of dark matter by the astronomy community.

Since Hubble, astronomers based on classical physics have claimed the light from distant galaxies upon absorption raises the temperature of cosmic dust. But the dust is nanoscopic and governed by quantum mechanics, the Planck law of which shows cosmic dust cannot conserve galaxy light by raising temperature because its heat capacity vanishes. Conservation therefore proceeds as the galaxy photon upon absorption readjusts to fit inside the dimensions of the dust nanoparticle. Depending on the refractive index and diameter of the nanoparticle, a redshifted galaxy photon is re-emitted. Regardless, cosmic dust redshift has been verified in numerous Earth based experiments showing nanoparticles redshift laser light. To avoid overstated galaxy velocities in the future, corrections are provided to determine if the measured redshift is indeed caused by a receding galaxy velocity or from cosmic dust. Historical observations in astronomy are discussed including the resolution of the long-standing galaxy rotation problem without the need for dark matter if the redshift measurements giving the higher than expected galaxy velocities are corrected for the redshift in cosmic dust. Similarly, an accelerating Universe expansion need not exist if the redshift showing supernovae brighter than expected is corrected for the redshift in the intervening dust. The Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Effect,Tolman test, exoplanets, and Olbers paradox are briefly discussed. See Abstract
 

A static and infinite Universe


In 1926, Hubble’s redshift measurements of light from distant galaxies changed the long-standing paradigm of a static and infinite Universe governed by  Newtonian mechanics to a finite and expanding Universe following Einstein’s  general relativity, or GR.  In the 1970’s, Vera Rubin’s redshift measurements of galaxy rotation curves showed a flat velocity profile in contrast to decreasing velocities predicted by Kepler’s law, the high velocities suggesting dark matter had to be present to hold the galaxies together. Recently, Andrei Maeder proposed GR should be modified by scale invariance allowing high rotational galaxy velocities without the need for dark matter to hold the galaxies together. But scale invariant GR requires the large scale Universe to be empty space without mass  which certainly is not self-evident, and in fact can only be erroneous because of cosmic dust. See Press Release

In this regard, an alternative theory  of the  Universe is proposed : An expanding Universe  and dark matter do not exist if the respective recession and rotational velocities of galaxies are corrected for the redshift in galaxy light upon interaction with cosmic dust on its way to the Earth.

Historically, the redshift in cosmic dust went unnoticed for almost a century because galaxy light was assumed to follow classical physics by conserving the galaxy photon by an increase in temperature. But the heat capacity of the atom given by the Planck law of QM, although finite at the macroscale vanishes at the nanoscale,  QM standing for quantum mechanics. Conservation of the galaxy photon in dust is therefore only possible by a non-thermal mechanism proposed here to be simple QED, but is far simpler than that proposed by Feynman and others.

Simple QED relies on the high S/V ratio at the nanoscale where the  galaxy photon of wavelength λo is absorbed almost entirely in the dust surface placing internal atoms under the high EM confinement necessary for the heat capacity to vanish by the Planck law. S/V stands for surface to volume. A non-thermal  standing photon having half-wavelength λ/2 = d is then created as the galaxy photon energy adjusts to the EM confinement bounded by the dust surface. The speed of light c corrected for the refractive index n of the dust gives the energy E of the redshift photon, E = h(c/n)/λ for a wavelength 2nd and redshift Z = (2nd - λo)/λo. Once the energy of the galaxy photon absorbed in the dust surface is expended to form the standing photon, the EM confinement vanishes and the galaxy photon now redshifted is free to travel to the Earth.

In cosmic dust, the redshift Z for Lyman - alpha galaxy photons is shown to approach the speed of light to significantly overstate recession and rotation velocities. However, by correcting galaxy redshifts for cosmic dust, not only does dark matter not exist, but both GR and scale invariant GR are irrelevant as galaxy dynamics follows Newtonian mechanics inherent in a static and infinite Universe . See Abstract


Nanotechnology 2018 - Rome


Nanoparticles and Dark Matter


Nanotechnology in the science of the very small and the search for dark matter in the very large Universe may appear to be unrelated, but in fact find commonality in the NPs in Earth based nanotechnology. NPs stand for nanoparticles. NPs are known to conserve heat by emitting EM radiation instead of increasing in temperature because the Planck law of QM requires the heat capacity of the quantum sized NPs to vanish. QM stands for quantum mechanics.

In 1926, Hubble discovered the Universe was expanding based on redshift measurements of light from recessing galaxies. But cosmic dust NPs of mostly silicates permeate the Universe. Upon the NPs absorbing the galaxy light on the way to the Earth, an additional redshift above the Hubble redshift occurs. Recession velocities were therefore overstated to the extent that to hold clusters of galaxies together then dark matter is thought necessary to exist. But if the Hubble redshift is corrected for cosmic dust, dark matter need not exist as the galaxy clusters are held together by Newtonian mechanics.

Because of the ubiquity of cosmic dust, all astronomical velocity measurements based on Hubble redshift are most likely overstated, e.g., the long-standing galaxy rotation problem may be resolved without the need for dark matter if the redshift velocities are corrected for cosmic dust. Similarly, an accelerated expansion of the Universe based on redshift of supernovae recessions need not exist if corrected for the overstated redshifts in intervening cosmic dust.

The problem is astronomers relied on classical physics that allows the atoms in quantum sized dust NPs to have the heat capacity to fluctuate in temperature, the consequence of which has misdirected cosmology into claiming we live in an expanding Universe. Contrarily, QM argues the Universe is not expanding suggesting cosmology return to Einstein’s once upon a time notion of a static and dynamic Universe. Futile searches for dark matter should be discontinued in favor of redshift measurements in cosmic dust under Lyman radiation  See Abstract
 


Simple QED


Almost a century ago, Hubble’s redshift measurements of light from distant galaxies marked the beginning of the notion that the Universe was expanding thereby supporting Einstein’s GR theory, althouigh dark matter itself was not identified as the consequence of GR, GR stands for general relativity. In 1933, Fritz Zwicky made claimed there was more matter in the universe than what was visible, the so-called dark matter. It was not until the 1970's that Vera Rubin hinted that dark matter might explain how spiral galaxies could stay together under the high rotation velocities. Like Hubble, Rubin inferred galaxy velocities from redshift of galaxy light.

However, Andrei Maeder recently made the controversial proposal that GR modified for scale invariance allows spiral galaxies to have the high rotationl velocities without the need for dark matter to hold the galaxies together. But scale invariant GR requires the large scale Universe to be empty space without mass – an unrealistic condition, let alone unverifiable by the scientific method. See summary Dark Matter is not dead and Critical review of scale invariance

An alternative Dark Matter theory in the negative that has been indirectly verified in nanotechnology is the redshift of laser light by NPs and recently was proposed to CERN as a comprehnsive study of silica NPs under Lyman alpha radiation, i.e.,

Dark matter does not exist because cosmic dust that permeates the Universe redshifts galaxy light thereby overstating the recession and rotational velocity of galaxies to give the impression the Universe is expanding faster than expected and dark matter is required to hold rotating galaxies together.

The redshift in cosmic dust went unnoticed for almost a century because the light-matter interaction of galaxy light was assumed to follow classical physics allowing the heat capacity of the nanoscopic dust to conserve the galaxy photon by an increase in temperature. But the heat capacity of the atom given by the Planck law of QM is not scale invariant being finite at the macroscale while vanishing at the nanoscale.  QM stands for quantum mechanics. Conservation of the galaxy photon is therefore only possible by a non-thermal light-matter interaction mechanism proposed here to be simple QED.

Simple QED relies on the high S/V ratio at the nanoscale whereby the  galaxy photon of wavelength λo is absorbed almost entirely in the dust surface placing internal atoms under the high EM confinement necessary in the Planck law of QM for heat capacity to vanish. S/V stands for surface to volume. A non-thermal EM standing photon having half-wavelength  λ/2 = d is then created as the galaxy photon energy adjusts to the EM confinement bounded by the dust surface. The speed of light c corrected for the refractive index n of the dust gives the energy E of the redshift photon,    E = h(c/n)/λ for a wavelength 2nd and redshift Z = (2nd - λo)/ λo. Once the energy of the galaxy photon absorbed in the dust surface is expended to form the standing photon, the EM confinement vanishes and the galaxy photon now redshifted is free to travel to the Earth. See Abstract

The following redshift Z for Lyman and hydrogen - alpha galaxy photons in cosmic dust may approach the speed of light significantly overstating galaxy velocities that have erroneously been interpreted as dark matter..
In conclusion, correcting measured galaxy redshifts for cosmic dust, not only does dark matter need not exist, but both GR and scale invariant GR are irrelevant as galaxy dynamics follows Newtonian mechanics. See Press Release.



Nanotechnology 2018

July 16-18


Neuro-degenerative Diseases from Nanoparticles


Neuro-degenerative diseases including Autism are characterized by the proliferation of cells from mutations of the neuron's DNA sequence. The DNA damage may be caused by exposure to exogenous agents such as UV radiation or the endogenous source of oxidative stress in internal body tissue. Except for the skin exposed to exogenous solar UV, DNA damage is generally thought  caused by oxidative stress. Indeed, oxidative DNA damage has been detected in brain tissue of schizophrenic patients, the consequence of which is the deficient repair of DNA that contributes to degenerative disease.
 
But what is the source of oxidative DNA damage?
 
Science has not yet recognized DNA damage from UV radiation in internal body tissue that are the source of oxidative DNA damage. But the implications of Autism from large quantities of aluminum NPs found in the brain changes this paradigm. NPs stand for nanoparticles. What this suggests is the NPs are producing the UV that creates the oxidative DNA damage, i.e., oxidative DNA damage is actually UV induced DNA damage. 
 
Nevertheless, a causal relation between NPs and UV radiation is required.  
 
Only recently, the causal relation of cancer from GM food was proposed from DNA damage caused by UV radiation from NPs. GM stands for genetically modified. The NPs are created during spraying herbicides on crop fields to kill weeds, but enter the corn or soybean crop and are ingested as GM food. See  PressRelease
 
What this means is the source of neuro-degenerative diseases from the newborn to the elderly is the DNA damage from UV radiation created by simple QED from diverse NPs that enter the body in vaccines and GM food. 
 
In theory, NPs do not naturally emit UV, but NPs do convert heat from surrounding body tissue to UV radiation if the heat capacity of the NPs somehow vanishes. Classically, NPs at absolute zero have vanishing heat capacity, but not at finite temperatures. QM differs as the heat capacity of the atom given by the Planck law at finite emperatures does indeed vanish under high EM confinement. QM stands for quantum mechanics and EM for electromagnetic. But high EM confinement is inherent in NPs upon absorbing heat because their high S/V ratios confine the heat to the NP surface. S/V stands for surface-to-volume. NP atoms are therefore placed under high EM confinement and by QM the heat capacity therefore vanishes. Lacking heat capacity, the heat may only be conserved by a non-thermal mechanism proposed here as simple QED, but differs from the complex QED theory advanced by Feynman and others.
 
Simple QED conserves heat by creating non-thermal EM radiation standing across the NP diameter having half-wavelength λ/2 = d as the heat adjusts to the EM confinement bounded by the NP surface. The speed of light c corrected for the refractive index n of the NP gives the Planck energy E = h(c/n)/λ, i.e., E = hc/2nd, where h is Planck's constabnt. In application, UV-C radiation at about 254 nm is a lethal level for the DNA damage in all living systems as the pyrimidine dimers are formed that block DNA replication. Aluminum NPs in vaccines having diameter d = 60 nm and n = 2 emit UV radiation at 2nd = 240 nm near the UV-C are likely to cause Autism by mutations in the neuron's DNA. Similarly, baby food with titanium dioxide NPs having n = 2.5 and d = 50 nm emit EM radiation at 2nd = 254 nm. Extensions to Alzheimer's for titanium dioxide NPs in GM food follow similar arguments. NPs having d > 100 nm are benign to DNA damage. Of importance, NPs in vacines are the toxic source and not the vaccine itself.
 
In summary, Autism from NP's is a risk to the health of US citizens, not only to the newborn in vaccines, but also in baby food.  In the elderly, NP's in GM food are a cause of Alzheimer's and cancer. The CDC is in charge of recommending the vaccination schedule for US children, which has grown 6,000%. CDC stands for Center of Disease Control. The CDC monitors vaccine safety and tracks the number of children with Autism in the US, i.e., from 1 in 10,000 in the 1980 's to 1 in 68 today. The following table is taken from  PressRelease and Abstract


In 2016 after the US election, a group of senior CDC scientists filed an ethics complaint alleging the CDC is influenced by corporate and political interests. Collusion is suggested by the departure of the prior head of CDC — -  Julie Gerberding— - to head the vaccine division of Merck. The scientists alleged the CDC misrepresented the rise in Autism rates since the late 1980 's a view consistent with the just elected President Trump who was quoted as saying:
 
When I was growing up, Autism wasn't really a factor and now all of a sudden, it's an epidemic. Everybody has their theory, and my theory is the shots. They're getting these massive injections at one time. I think it's the vaccinations.
 
President Trump is correct about the rapid increase in Autism from vaccinations. However, the cause of Autism is not the vaccine, but the NPs in the shots. But Trump should also consider Autism being caused from NPs in baby food which is long-term compared to short-term vaccinations as the  6,000% increase in Autism may also be linked to the rapid increase in the US of GM food containing NPs. The FDA should ban all NPs from vaccinations and food, but this is unlikely given the polarization of US politics. See PressRelease



The IAU Conference is being held on August 28-29, 2018. Focus Meeting 10 on Nano Dust in Space and Astrophysics is of special interest because cosmic dust has mis-directed cosmology since Hubble's discovery of Universe expansion based on redshift in 1926. Currently, Universe expansion based on redshift measurements  continues to mis-direct cosmology with its search for dark matter, i.e., Hubble's false notion that the velocity of receding galaxies is inferred from the Doppler effect using redshift measurements. What Hubble and subsequently many other astronomers failed to realize was that the galaxy redshift included the redshift upon absorption of galaxy light by  cosmic dust on its way to the Earth. Because of this, the galaxy velocities were and still are overstated thereby supporting the false notion of an expanding Universe. Today, the overstated galaxy velocities have led to the futile earch for dark matter thought necessary to hold galaxy clusters together.

CosmoIogy has not recognized redshift in cosmic dust as the source of the false dark matter. Indeed, the scientific rationale for Focus Meeting 10 continues to rely on classical physics by treating the absorption of galaxy photons to raise the temperature of cosmic dust, i.e.,  
 
"The presence of nano dust leads to the heating of the surrounding plasma and dusty plasma effects, like waves and instabilities...Interstellar nano dust dominates the far ultraviolet extinction as well as [producing] the near- and mid-infrared emission of the interstellar medium of the Milky Way and external galaxies"
 
But cosmic dust is nanoscopic and follows QM - not classical physics. QM stands for quantum mechanics. By the Planck law of QM, the atoms in the cosmic dust lack the kT heat capacity to heat dusty plasma and produce near- and mid-infrared emission of the interstellar medium. The absorption of galaxy light cannot raise the temperature of cosmic dust. Instead, conservation of galaxy light may only proceed by a non-thermal mechanism, i.e., the re-emission of redshifted galaxy light. Consequences of cosmic dust by QM in cosmology and astronomy are significant, e.g., increased dust temperatures leading to NIR and FIR spectra simply do not occur. For details, see above: The Buchalter Cosmology Prize, EWASS-2018, Light-matter interaction-Chengdu, and Nanotechnology-Rome. In this regard, perhaps the IAU Focus Meeting 10 will reach a resolution on cosmic dust by QM instead of classical physics to provide a new direction for cosmology.


Nanoparticles and DNA damage


Over at least the past few decades, NPs are known to cause DNA damage. But the causal  relation of NPs to human health remains unknown. NPs stand for nanoparticles. Chemical reactions of NPs contacting the DNA cannot be the causal relation as DNA damage occurs even with inert NPs, the consequence of which suggests a physical causal relation. DNA damage is known caused in photodynamic therapy by high temperatures from laser heating NPs, but small temperature increases of NPs in a cell from body heat alone cannot damage the DNA.

Contrary to photodynamic therapy, heating of NPs does not cause necrosis of cancer cells from high temperatures because the Planck law of QM precludes  increases in NP temperature as the heat capacity of the quantum sized NPs vanishes. Instead, the laser heat produces EM radiation within the NP beyond the UV.  Unlike temperature, the UV emission suggests the causal relation of NPs to human health is therefore the well-known genotoxicity of DNA to UV radiation. Only body heat is required. The wavelength λ of the emitted EM radiation is, λ = 2nd, where n and d are the refractive index and diameter of the NP. For example, NPs having n = 1.5 damage the DNA by producing EM radiation beyond the UVC (λ < 254 nm ) for NP diameters d < 85 nm. Larger NPs are benign,

In this regard, solar UV is well-known to cause DNA damage to the skin and may lead to cancer, but cannot penetrate the skin to damage internal organs. Contrarily, NPs rescind this paradigm. Indeed, NPs by entering the body in the GM food we eat produce the low levels of UV that damage the DNA of internal organs. The DNA damage in GM food is caused by NPs included in herbicides to enhance crop yields by controlling weeds. GM stands for genetically modified.

To avoid genetic cancers in human evolution from DNA damage caused by NPs in GM food, Monsanto and other herbicide manufacturers should stop use of NPs in controlling weeds in crop fields. Otherwise, the responsible parties may be alleged guilty of a crime against humanity. See Abstract


Protein Folding and Unfolding


Structural biology is the study of protein structure. The theme of the 14th International Conference on  Structural Biology held on September 24-26 in Berlin is:

Navigating the Future Advancements in Structural Biology

Of interest are the structural  changes of conformation during folding and unfolding. Proteins are sensitive to electrostatic charges from amino acid side chains that change with conformation. But MD simulations of protein folding and unfolding are based on L-J force fields with electrostatic interaction represented by fixed point charges.  MD stands for molecular dynamics and L-J for attractive Lennard-Jones. QM modification of point charges during conformational changes is required, but is impractical because of computational costs.  QM stands for quantum mechanics.  
 
Computation costs aside, even if point charges were indeed continuously updated, the effect on protein folding and unfolding would not be significant compared to the more fundamental QM effect of the Planck law on the heat capacity of constituent atoms. In this regard, proteins are generally thought to unfold upon increasing in temperature from heat in the surroundings, based on the classical assumption the atoms have the heat capacity to allow temperature changes to occur. But  the Planck law requires the heat capacity of the atom to vanish with conservation proceeding by simple QED creating EM radiation that by the photoelectric effect removes electrons to positively charge constituent atoms. By QM, the long-held  paradigm of proteins increasing in temperature is simply false. What this means is the heat thought to induce unfolding by increasing the temperature of proteins is actually conserved by producing charge that unfolds the protein by Coulomb repulsion, i.e., increasing temperature alone cannot thermally unfold a protein.   


To illustrate QM induced charge, the MD simulation of folding and unfolding using Allen & Tldesley algorithms for a simple 5-atom protein is illustrated in the above figure. Time steps on the order of 0.001 fs were required to resolve the changing confirmations, the MD runs taking 10-20 million iterations.  Initially, the semi-circular protein relaxes under attractive L-J forces to a cluster (not shown) but does not unfold because of a numerical bottleneck. Unfolding only occurs by breaking the bottleneck with the QM induced repulsive positive charge ( 0.5 –- 1 electron charges) to each atom. The applied QM force is not steady, but fluctuates depending on the recombination time < 1 ps of electrons with charged atoms. In the simulation, the QM repulsive force was applied every 1000 iterations, i.e., every fs which is an approximation to the < 1 ps recombination time. Folding back to the intermediate cluster (shown) occurs by relaxing the protein with only L-J attractive forces without QM induced charge. The protein then returns to the semi-circular unfolded shape (although inverted)  by applying the QM induced repulsive charge.  
 
In summary, the protein naturally modifies the QM induced charge during protein folding and unfolding in the process of conserving  heat by creating EM radiation instead of increasing temperature. The EM radiation removes electrons by the photoelectric effect and charges the atoms positive so as to induce Coulomb repulsion that enhances unfolding. On a pico-second time scale, the electrons recombine with charged atoms to return the protein to the folded state by placing the protein under van der Waals attractive forces. Driven by heat, protein folding and unfolding is therefore the consequence of fluctuations in constituent atoms between QM induced repulsive charged states and L-J dominated attractive states. See Abstract and Press Release 
 
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