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Thought for Us


The important thing is to never stop questioning


A. Einstein


The important thing is not to stop questioning.
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Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html
Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html
Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html
Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is not to stop questioning.
Read more at: https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125368.html






Superlens by transformative optics or QED?


In conventional optics, image quality depends on the diffraction limit. Recently, transformative optics using a superlens was proposed to restore image quality below the diffraction limit, the restoration not possible with conventional optics. Currently, the superlens is thought explained by evanescent waves in meta-materials having negative permittivity in contact with a dielectric with a permittivity of equal and positive sign, although a superlens of nanoscale noble metals, e.g., silver films obviates the need for complex permittivity matching.
   
Regardless, the existence of thermally driven evanescent waves in near-field heat transfer is questionable because QM precludes temperature fluctuations in nanoscale films. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Hence, evanescent waves that cannot pass through a superlens of a nanoscale silver film can not explain the enhanced image quality.

In this regard, sub-diffraction-limited imaging in the superlens is proposed to be a natural consequence of QED induced EM radiation, i.e., light is created in the nanoscale silver film upon the absorption the light in  the diffraction limited P* image. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but differs from the complex relativistic QED by Feynman and others. Briefly stated:

QED conserves heat supplied to a superlens absent heat capacity by creating light having half-wavelength  λ /2 = nd, where n and d are the refractive index and thickness of the silver film.    
 
For PMMA having n = 1.5 illuminated with UV at 365 nm, the diffraction-limited wavelength P* for resolving periodic structures [3] is, P* = 365/1.5 = 243 nm, below which periodic spaced structures cannot be resolved. The superlens of a silver film interposed between the PMMA and the photoresist absorbs the energy of light in the diffraction-limited image P*. Since QM precludes temperature changes in the nanoscale silver film, the energy of the light in the P* diffracted image is conserved by the emission of light at wavelength λ = 2 nd, where n is the refractive index of silver at wavelength P*. Unlike evanescent waves that cannot pass through the silver film, QED induces the silver films having thiickness d = 35 nm to emit light at sub-diffraction wavelengths λ that etches the photoresist. For silver at 243 nm having n = 1.28, QED produces the sub-diffraction-limited resolution at λ = 89 nm consistent with that shown in the above Figure. See  Paper and Presentation

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Integrative Cancer Science and Therapeutics (ICST) is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal interested in attracting high-quality original research and reviews that present or highlight significant advances in all areas of cancer and related biomedical science. The Journal is concerned with basic, translational and clinical research, across different disciplines and areas, enhancing insight in understanding, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The journal also prioritizes clinical trials evaluating new treatments, accompanied by research on pharmacology and molecular alterations or biomarkers that predict response or resistance to treatment.

The recent controversy between Greenpeace an Nobel Laureates over the health problems in GM food prompted the proposal that the causal link between birth defects, autism, and cancer is the consequence of DNA damage from low-level UV radiation from NPs in GM food prompted the ICST article.
 
"Cancer by UV radiation form nanoparticles in GM food"

Indeed, we ingest large quantiiies of NPs on a daily basis in the GM food we eat. But if the DNA damage by NPs is repaired by the immune system of the individual, it is self-evident health problems do not occur. However, not all individuals are so lucky and are subject to birth defects. autism, and cancer.

What can be done?

 
The PONT conference will address the cardinal issues of the dark universe today, gathering a selected number of scientists working in cosmology and particle physics in the inspiring and monumental setting of Avignon. There will be a limited number of review talks by leading experts in each field and selected contributed talks, fostering thorough debates. Some time will be allocated to discussion sessions. My contribution addersses the issue of DarkMatter:
 
"Cosmic Dust and Dark Matter"
 
and argues DarkMatter does not exist. See Paper



GM Food: A Crime against Humanity?



The causal link between GM food and human health is proposed to be the scrambling of genes in DNA by low-level UV radiation upon ingestion of included adjuvant NPs. GM stands for genetically modified and NPs for nanoparticles. Modern agriculture depends on controlling weeds by spraying Roundup containing Glyphosate on crop fields. To enhance the penetration of the Glyphosate through plant leaves, NPs of POEA are included in Roundup, but the NPs also enter the food crop.

Upon ingestion, the NPs in the gut convert body heat into low-level UV radiation a known of DNA damage. If the DNA is repaired by the immune system, there is no problem. But for some people lacking iimmunity, cancer, birth defects, autism, and other health problems are likely to develop.

The UV radiation from NPs is based on quantum mechanics thereby supporting the fact experiments for decades have shown NPs damage the DNA. Yet NPs are planned to enhance future GM food supplies raising the question of whether the GM food industry is guilty of committing a crime against humanity by altering the DNA of people in the world. Moreover, the complicity of Nobel Laureates who supported the GM food industry in refuting the Greenpeace campaign against GM food is discussed. See Paper


QED induced Cancer Treatment

Recently, gold NPs adjacent cancer tumors are found to enhance necrosis by taking advantage of the increased absorption of gold compared to soft tissue. NPs stand for nanoparticles having dimensions < 100 nm. However, the high absorptivity of gold is of little consequence as little if any X-rays are absorbed in NPs. Indeed, X-ray absorption of gold NPs in water is shown to be negligible and almost totally dominated by the far larger dimensions of the water surroundings.

What this means is X-ray absorption in gold NPs is not the cause of cancer necrosis, but rather necrosis is somehow caused by the heating of NPs from the X-rays absorbed in the surrounding water perhaps explaining the current discrepancy in the LEM between X-ray doses and observed cancer cell necrosis,

Currently, NP temperatures are of great controversy. Absorption cross sections at the incident power levels typical of RF-GHZ experiments show increases in temperature cannot occur in NPs. In contrast, simulations [3] based on classical physics have claimed temperature changes of 30 – 40 °C occur consistent with liver cancer cell experiments after targeting those cells with gold NPs and exposure to RF fields, but QM governs the nanoscale. QM stands for quantum mechanics.

QM given by the Planck law precludes any increase in NP temperature let alone 30 - 40 C because the heat capacity of the NP atoms vanishes as the high surface-to-volume ratios of NPs confine the heat from the surroundings to the NP surfaces. EM stands for electromagnetic. Instead, QED momentarily creates EM radiation having half-wavelength λ/2 = d standing across the diameter d of the NP. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but is a simple form of the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feynman and others.

Since the standing EM radiation from the UV to X-rays is created from the NP surface heat, the EM radiation propagates into the surroundings once the surface heat vanishes. Only heat from the surroundings produces the EM emission. See the above figure. The QED radiation has Planck energy E = hv in the UV and beyond that damages the DNA halting the growth of the cancer cells by precluding reproduction. Here, h is Planck's constant and v is frequency, v = (c/n) / λ = c/2nd, where c is the velocity of light and n the refractive index of the NP.

Given that cancer necrosis may only occur as gold NPs are heated upon absorption of X-rays in surrounding water while DNA damage is usually thought to occur at UV levels from 3 to 8 eV, the Planck energy E of the QED radiation for gold NP having index n = 1.5 and diameters d from 1 to 100 nm is presented in PressRelease  The UV-C level of 254 nm having Planck energy E = 4.88 eV produced in 85 nm gold NPs corresponds to the formation of the pyrimidine dimers that block DNA replication in all living systems.

For NPs to create X-rays, QED requires NPs < 1 nm. But even the 85 nm NPs produce X-rays because QED radiation charges all NPs positive as electrons are lost by the photoelectric effect. Coulomb repulsion between positive charged atoms then fragments the NP into smaller and smaller fragments with increasing EM emission frequency until the fragments < 1 nm are formed whereby X-rays are produced.

In conclusion, classical physics as the traditional method for estimating NP temperatures under X-ray radiation are not valid. QM governs the nanoscale.

QM requires the heat capacity of atoms in NPs vanish denying conservation of heat from X-ray induced heating of the surrounding water by an increase in temperature.

Instead, QED conserves the heat from X-ray induced heat in the surrounding water by creating EM radiation inside the NPs instead of increasing their temperatures. However, the EM radiation charges the atoms by removing electrons which induces Coulomb repulsion between all atoms forming a state of hydrostatic tension that fractures the NPs. Subsequently, the heated fragments fracture to produce even progressively higher frequency EM emission. Hence, the gold NPs generate their own source of X-rays.


A causal relation between GM foods and Cancer



Nanotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials. Because of quantum size effects and large surface area to volume ratio, nano materials have unique properties compared with their larger counterparts. Nanotoxicology is a branch of bionanoscience which deals with the study and application of toxicity of nanomaterials. Nanomaterials, even when made of inert elements like gold, become highly active at nanometer dimensions. Nanotoxicological studies are intended to determine whether and to what extent these properties may pose a threat to the environment and to human beings.  
 
Indeed, nanotoxicology studies of NPs in GM foods is often correlated with human health problems including cancer and birth defects. NPs stand for  nanoparticles and GM for genetically modified. However, the causal relation between NPs and human health problems is not understood.  
 
In this paper, NPs of glyphosate used in weed killers that aid in penetrating plant leaves enter the crop and upon human ingestation in the gut produce low-level UV radiation that damages nearby DNA, the scrambled genes eventually leading to a myriad of health problems. See Abstract


Dark Matter as Redshift in Cosmic Dust


Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) experiments suggesting dark matter does not exist are consistent with the argument that the long-standing galaxy rotation problem may be resolved without the need for dark matter if the redshift measurements giving the higher than expected galaxy velocities are corrected for the  redshift in cosmic dust. Because of the ubiquity of cosmic dust, all velocity measurements in astronomy based on redshift are most likely overstated, e.g., an accelerating Universe expansion need not exist if data showing supernovae brighter than expected based on the redshift/distance relation is corrected for the redshift in dust.
 
Today, cosmology is of great interest with regard to dark matter and Universe expansion, both relying on galaxy velocities computed by the Doppler Effect using the usual redshift measurements. Given that cosmic dust affects the redshift measurements, the following conclusions are made.
 
Dark Matter

The spiral galaxy M31 has a flat velocity profile from the bulge to the edge while Newtonian mechanics give a decreasing velocity with radius. By QED redshift, the rotation problem is resolved. The M31 spectra of galaxy light in an edge-on view gives nearly constant redshift along the radius because of about same volume of cosmic dust between the galaxy and the observer. Therefore, the Doppler effect gives the flat velocity profile. What this means is Newton’s equations are valid provided corrections are made for cosmic dust. In effect, the existence of dark matter is highly unlikely.

Prior to the WIMP search for dark matter by LUX, the MOND theory based on spatially dependent gravitation force – laws was considered the leading explanation of dark matter. MOND stands for modified Newtonian dynamics. For spiral galaxies, MOND does reproduce the galaxy rotation curves. But for elliptical galaxies, galaxy groups, galaxy clusters, and larger-scale structures, MOND does not fit observations. Moreover, MOND also requires dark matter. Instead of just using WIMP to explain observations throughout the Universe, MOND requires both spatially dependent WIMPs and gravitational-force laws, an unlikely proposition given the inability of LUX to find WIMPs.
 
Interestingly, the presence of dark matter has been inferred by kinematic measurements of redshifted star positions. However, if the kinematics is based on actual star positions excluding redshift, dark matter is insignificant consistent with the corrections for QED redshift.
 
More exotically, there is still no compelling evidence that PBHs provide dark matter. PBH stands for primordial black holes. However, standard BHs known to exist may be used to assess PBHs, but even this is questionable. BHs stand for black holes. To determine the mass of a standard BH, the velocity of orbiting stars again rely on redshift measurements. However, the star velocities may be only a few hundred km/s that by the Doppler Effect correspond to Z < 0.005. Therefore, high precision spectroscopy is required to resolve the redshift wavelength which may only be a fraction of a nanometer. Therefore, the extension of large masses predicted in standard BHs to speculative PBHs needs to be critically reviewed for QED redshift in cosmic dust
 
Accelerating Universe Expansion
 
Since Hubble’s discovery of galaxy redshift, an expanding Universe has dominated astronomy. However, by correcting for the redshift in cosmic dust, Hubble might have allowed astronomy to proceed on the basis of Newtonian mechanics instead of Einstein’s general relativity of an expanding Universe that today is thought to explain a Universe with an accelerating expansion
 
In 2001, the most distant Type Ia SN having a redshift of Z = 1.7 was found brighter than expected and interpreted that it was closer to us than indicated by the redshift/distance relationship. SN stands for Supernovae. Later 10 more distant SN were all found brighter than expected. Since dust can only make SN dimmer, but never brighter, the brighter SN explained by accelerated Universe expansion.  
 
It is correct that cosmic dust can never make the SN brighter, but incorrect to conclude dust does not redshift SN light. The redshift/distance relationship assumes Z = ZV and not   Z = ZV + ZD, where ZV and ZD are the redshifts of the recession velocity and cosmic dust.  If redshift Z is not corrected for dust ZD, the brightness B(ZV) is greater than at B(ZV+ZD) consistent with that the SN appears is closer to us than expected from the distance based on the relationship with redshift. However, if the redshift Z is corrected for QED redshift ZD, the brightness B(ZV+ZD) is the same as expected B(ZV) from the redshift/distance relationship. What this means is the accelerating Universe is not physical, but rather an anomaly of QED redshift. See Paper and Presentation



Redshift-Space Distortions in Cosmic Dust


The Sexten Center for Astrophysics is holding a workshop on Luminous- and Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs/ULIRGs) on July 3 - 7. Of interest is the IR output of the galaxies is powered by dust absorption and re-emission of photons originating in bursts of star formation.

In this regard, galaxy light is shown to redshift upon absorption in NPs of cosmic dust. NPs stand for nanoparticles. In classical physics, the NP temperature increases upon absorbing galaxy light, but QM governs the nanoscale. QM stands for quantum mechanics. By QM, the atom heat capacity vanishes in NPs, and therefore the heat of galaxy light cannot be conserved by an increase in temperature. Instead, conservation proceeds by a simplified form of QED producing standing EM radiation inside the NP. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics and EM for electromagnetic. But the NP requires EM confinement for QED to convert the heat into standing EM waves, the EM confinement relying on the high S/V ratio of NPs. S/V stands for surface-to-volume. Because of the high S/V ratio of NPs, almost all of the heat of galaxy light is deposited in the NP surface thereby providing the momentary EM confinement of NP atoms necessary to create the standing EM radiation. Once the surface heat is depleted in creating the standing EM radiation, there no longer is any EM confinement and the standing EM radiation is emitted to the surroundings travelling  to the Earth as QED redshifted galaxy light. 

In this paper, QED redshift corrections for cosmic dust is extended to removing observational effects from spectroscopic measurements in clustering of galaxies in Redshift-Space Distortions (RSD). See Abstract



Cosmic Dust and Dark Matter


The European Week of Astronomy and Space Science (EWASS) is the annual meeting of the European Astronomical Society (EAS). With more than 20 years of tradition, it is the largest conference for European astronomy.

In special session SS12 on Dust across the Universe, galaxy velocity measurements are claimed overstated because of QED redshift in cosmic dust above  that given by Doppler redshfit thereby  suggesting dark matter is necessary to hold the galaxies together. But if the measured redshift is corrected for QED redshift in dust, the galaxy velocities given by the Doppler effect are consistent with Newtonian mechanics. What this means is dark matter does not exist. Cosmic dust is also shown to explain other historical astronomical observations. See Abstract


Disinfectant Drinking Bowl


SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Disclosed is a germicidal UV radiation device for disinfecting pathogens in drinking water without electricity using a hand-held bowl provided with a nanoscale silver coating that produces UV radiation powered only by body heat from the palm of the hand. The source of UV radiation embodies a bowl with a 100 nm silver coating at the water interface that converts body heat produces UVC radiation having a wavelength of about 254 nm that disinfects the water in the bowl of pathogens. Unlike anti-microbial coatings that require contact of the pathoge, the silver coating emits UVC radiation that disinfects pathogens at a distance in the water.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to the disinfection of water in a drinking bowl held in the palm of the hand disinfecting pathogens with UVC radiation source powered only by body heat. No electricity needed.

BACKGROUND and SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Contaminated drinking water is Universal.  WHO/UNICEF estimates almost 1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water. Even if bottled water is available, the consumer never knows if it is indeed safe. The most direct water disinfection is by boiling, but except for water boiling units in restaurants is not available to the individual consumer at the point of use. Unequivocally, water purification by filtration at the point of use is desirable. Water purifiers require pumping through ceramic or resin filters coated with silver NPs. NP stands for nanoparticle.  Silver NPs are known to provide antimicrobial action by damaging the DNA of bacteria, but NPs that come off the filter and enter the body also  damage human DNA that if not repaired, may lead to cancer.

In contrast, UVC disinfection of drinking water outside the body avoids the danger of cancer posed by NPs in filters. Currently, LEDs in the UVC are thought to provide the individual with point of use disinfection of drinking water, but still require a source of electrical power. LEDs stand for light emitting diodes.

UVC radiation can deactivate pathogens such as anthrax, smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, pneumonic plague, tularemia and drug resistant tuberculosis.

However, filters and LEDs require sources of electricity that are not always available, especially in the developing world.  Therefore, it is desirable to invent a device that produces UVC radiation to disinfect drinking water without an external source of electricity. In the instant invention, a photograph of the hand-held drinking bowl is shown above. Details of the invention are given in Disclosure

Solicitation of Disinfectant Bowl development is given in Freelancer

  

Winful's Argument


The Hartman effect suggests superluminal velocities as the evanescent tunneling time tends to a constant for large barriers. With evanescent tunneling, the barrier is the gap between double prisms. When the prisms are in contact, the light passes straight through, but when there is a gap, the light may either tunnel across or follow the refracted path. Since the time for light to travel across large gaps is found to be the same as for short gaps, the Hartman effect has been interpreted to suggest the photons have crossed the gap with superluminal velocity.  
 
However, Winful argued non-propagating evanescent waves are virtual photons that do not propagate across the gap into the outside world, but over time accumulate energy until the barrier is breached. Once corrected for the delay time,  the light in the Hartman effect is not superluminal.  
 
Winful'’s argument is problematic. The accumulated energy of evanescent waves necessary to breach the barrier is STILL evanescent and cannot propagate across the gap. What this means is tunneling of photons through the double prism gap occurs by a more fundamental mechanism that converts non-propagating evanescent photons into propagating photons. Here, the mechanism proposed is QED tunneling, where QED is simplified form of the complex light-matter interaction proposed by Feyman and others. See PressRelease and forthcoming OSA Paper.


The Eleventh International Congress on Engineered Material Platforms for Novel Wave Phenomena – Metamaterials 2017 at the Institut Fresnel of Marseille providing a forum to share metamaterials research in the engineering, physics, applied mathematics and material science communities. 
 
In the Paper:
 
"Superlensing by QED"
 
QED induced sub-diffraction-limited imaging is produced with a 35 nm nanoscale silver lens using the light from a  diffraction-limited image in a 40 nm PMMA spacer. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, but is a simplified from the complex relativistic QED of light-mattter interaction by Feynman and others.

In the  Paper, the QED of thin films is extended to EUV lithography. Difficulties in extending Moore’s law to 13.5 nm may be traced to LPP lithography. LPP stands for Laser Produced Plasma. Based on classical physics, EUV light is currently produced from the atomic emission filtered from ionization of atoms at high temperature. LPP uses high power CO2 lasers to heat solid and gas targets that after reflection from the large 100 cm mirror is filtered to produce EUV. See  PressRelease
 
In contrast, QED induced EUV lithography based on QM offers a far simpler and inexpensive way to extend Moore’s law. The EUV source comprises an ordinary 10 cm spherical glass lens provided on the front surface with a 5 nm silver coating. A heater on the back surface allows heat to flow into the coating, but QM precludes any increase in the coating temperature. Instead, QED converts the heat into the coating to a steady EUV light source. Lasers are not required. See PressRelease

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