Quotations


Thought for Us


Imagination is more important than knowledge


A. Einstein


Buchalter Cosmology Prize



The Buchalter Cosmology Prize was conceived on the premise that there are still fundamental gaps in our understanding of cosmology and that currently-accepted paradigms such as inflation and dark energy are incomplete, and possibly even incorrect descriptions of our Universe. It was created to stimulate ground-breaking theoretical, observational, or experimental work in cosmology that challenges, extends, or illuminates current models and/or helps explain the cosmic expansion from first principles. The ultimate goal is to help spur the formulation of a broader cosmological theory that explains current observations, puts forth testable new predictions, and fundamentally advances our understanding of physics. The Cosmology Prize will be awarded in January 2018
 
Today, cosmology is based on Einstein's expanding Universe beginning with Hubble's discovery of an expanding Universe from redshift measurements of receding galaxies. The notion of dark matter evolved because Newton's mechanics could not explain how clusters of galaxies are held together under the high velociites inferred by measurements of redshift. For a brief history of dark matter see PressRelease  
 
The instant Buchalter Cosmology paper argues cosmic dust causes galaxy velocities inferred by redshift measurements to be overstated, and if corrected for cosmic dust would show clusters of galaxies are held together by Newtonian mechanics. What this means is the Universe is not expanding, but rather is indeed static and dynamic as Einstein once thought.  See Paper.



Invalidity of Thermal Fluctuations


Thermal fluctuations although valid for macroscopic structures based on the FDT of electrodynamics including the formation of evanescent waves are shown invalid at the nanoscale as the Planck law of QM precludes the atoms in NS from fluctuating in temperature. FDT stands for fluctuation dissipation theorem, QM for quantum mechanics, and NS for nanostructures. Unlike the conservation of heat at the macroscale by raising the temperature, QM requires the conservation of heat at the nanoscale to proceed by creating EM radiation within NS. See  Abstract


CHARGE MANIPULATION OF FLOW


The manipulation of flow in nanochannels by charge is thought confirmed by numerous MD simulations of flow by single file of molecules interacting with the interior of CNTs through L-J potentials. MD stands for molecular dynamics, CNT for carbon nanotubes, and L-J for Lennard-Jones. However, MD simulations have strange findings: The flow can be stopped by placing a static positive charge near the outside of the CNT while vibrating the charge can increase the flow. Vibrating charge shows flow is maximum at NIR frequencies suggesting the breakage of hydrogen bonds with CNT walls having energies of 20 kJ/mol. NIR stands for near infrared.  However, experiments confirming the validity of the MD model of molecules suspended on hydrogen bonds do not exist. Regardless,

A different MD model is proposed.

Since nanochannel cross-sections have at least one  dimension < 100 nm, the molecules upon entering the nanochannel are exposed to EM radiation originating because  QM precludes the heat from the surroundings from being conserved by raising the temperature of the nanochannel. QM stands for quantum mechanics. Indeed, the wavelength of the EM radiation standing across the < 100 nm dimension of the nanochannel is < 200 nm having Planck energy > 6 eV which is sufficient to remove electrons from atoms in most molecules including the inside surface of the CNT wall.

What this means is the hydrogen bonds do not break by the flow, but are broken by EM radiation, the electrons removed by the photoelectric effect leaving a flow of positive charged atoms with the CNT surface also charged positive. Nanochannel flow is therefore significantly enhanced above classical Hagen-Poiseuille theory because Coulomb repulsion between the atoms as well as the CNT wall avoids frictional contact and therefore viscosity vanishes with the flow of positive charged atoms approaching a frictionless condition bounded by the Bernoulli equation. MD simulations are performed for a single-file flow of positive charged atoms that show water flow in CNTs can be manipulated with static and vibrational positive charges



EWASS-2018



Dark Matter only Exists because of Cosmic Dust


Engaging the public with astronomy and space science research is difficult because complex explanations by scientific experts are not understood by the common person. This is especially relevant in cosmology where astronomers claim dark matter exists having a mass about 5 times that of what we observe on Earth, but is invisible and cannot be observed! Because of the unusual and perhaps bizarre nature of dark matter claims, it is only natural for the public to question whether the astronomy community is taking advantage of the taxpayer who is paying for meaningless research.

Nevertheless, astronomers do admit there are still fundamental gaps in our understanding of cosmology and that currently accepted paradigms such as dark matter are incomplete and perhaps even incorrect descriptions of our Universe. Consistent with the scientific background of the public, my paper is not complex theoretical work and can be understood with knowledge of basic physics with deductions from the well-known Planck law of quantum mechanics formulated over a century ago. I argue that Hubble overstated the expansion of the Universe based on velocities inferred from the redshift of light from receding galaxies because Hubble's measurements included an additional redshift as the light is absorbed by the intervening cosmic dust on its way to the Earth. Because the overstated velocities were significant, astronomers concluded invisible dark matter must be present to hold the Universe together.

Regardless, my challenge to current cosmology is based on first principles that can be confirmed by experiment and understood by the public thereby refuting over nearly a century of erudite, but otherwise erroneous explanations of dark matter by the astronomy community.

Since Hubble, astronomers based on classical physics have claimed the light from distant galaxies upon absorption raises the temperature of cosmic dust. But the dust is nanoscopic and governed by quantum mechanics, the Planck law of which shows cosmic dust cannot conserve galaxy light by raising temperature because its heat capacity vanishes. Conservation therefore proceeds as the galaxy photon upon absorption readjusts to fit inside the dimensions of the dust nanoparticle. Depending on the refractive index and diameter of the nanoparticle, a redshifted galaxy photon is re-emitted. Regardless, cosmic dust redshift has been verified in numerous Earth based experiments showing nanoparticles redshift laser light. To avoid overstated galaxy velocities in the future, corrections are provided to determine if the measured redshift is indeed caused by a receding galaxy velocity or from cosmic dust. Historical observations in astronomy are discussed including the resolution of the long-standing galaxy rotation problem without the need for dark matter if the redshift measurements giving the higher than expected galaxy velocities are corrected for the redshift in cosmic dust. Similarly, an accelerating Universe expansion need not exist if the redshift showing supernovae brighter than expected is corrected for the redshift in the intervening dust. The Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Effect,Tolman test, exoplanets, and Olbers paradox are briefly discussed. See Abstract Portal
 

Nanotechnology 2018 - Rome


Nanoparticles and Dark Matter


Nanotechnology in the science of the very small and the search for dark matter in the very large Universe may appear to be unrelated, but in fact find commonality in the NPs in Earth based nanotechnology. NPs stand for nanoparticles. NPs are known to conserve heat by emitting EM radiation instead of increasing in temperature because the Planck law of QM requires the heat capacity of the quantum sized NPs to vanish. QM stands for quantum mechanics.

In 1926, Hubble discovered the Universe was expanding based on redshift measurements of light from recessing galaxies. But cosmic dust NPs of mostly silicates permeate the Universe. Upon the NPs absorbing the galaxy light on the way to the Earth, an additional redshift above the Hubble redshift occurs. Recession velocities were therefore overstated to the extent that to hold clusters of galaxies together then dark matter is thought necessary to exist. But if the Hubble redshift is corrected for cosmic dust, dark matter need not exist as the galaxy clusters are held together by Newtonian mechanics.

Because of the ubiquity of cosmic dust, all astronomical velocity measurements based on Hubble redshift are most likely overstated, e.g., the long-standing galaxy rotation problem may be resolved without the need for dark matter if the redshift velocities are corrected for cosmic dust. Similarly, an accelerated expansion of the Universe based on redshift of supernovae recessions need not exist if corrected for the overstated redshifts in intervening cosmic dust.

The problem is astronomers relied on classical physics that allows the atoms in quantum sized dust NPs to have the heat capacity to fluctuate in temperature, the consequence of which has misdirected cosmology into claiming we live in an expanding Universe. Contrarily, QM argues the Universe is not expanding suggesting cosmology return to Einstein’s once upon a time notion of a static and dynamic Universe. Futile searches for dark matter should be discontinued in favor of redshift measurements in cosmic dust under Lyman radiation  See Abstract
 


Simple QED


Simple QED is a theory of light-matter interaction, but differs from the complex quantum electrodynamics theory of light-matter interaction advanced by Feynman and others. Simple QED based on the Planck law of QM is a far-simpler theory of light-matter interaction in NS. QM stands for quantum mechanics, and NS for nanostructures. 

Briefly stated:

"Under the QM restriction that the heat capacity of the atom under high EM confinement vanishes, simple QED conserves heat absorbed in a NS by spontaneously creating standing EM radiation inside the NS having half wavelength λ/2 = d, where d is the minimum dimension of the NS."

The Planck energy E of the standing EM radiation is,

E=h(c/n)/λ =hc/2nd                                                          
 
where, h is Planck's constant, the velocity of light c is corrected for the slower speed in the solid state by the refractive index n of the NS.

The EM confinement of atoms in NS does not require any surface treatment, but is a natural consequence of their high S/V ratios. S/V stands for surface-to-volume. Upon absorption of heat, almost all of the photon energy is therefore spontaneously deposited in the NS surface. What this means is the NS atoms are momentarily placed under EM confinement. Since NS are submicron, the EM confinement is also submicron and therefore the Planck law requires the  heat capacity of the NS  vanishes.
 
 
CosmoIogy has not recognized redshift in cosmic dust as the source of dark matter. Indeed, the scientific rationale for Focus Meeting 10 continues to rely on classical physics by treating the absorption of galaxy photons to raise the temperature of cosmic dust, i.e.,  
 
"The presence of nano dust leads to the heating of the surrounding plasma and dusty plasma effects, like waves and instabilities...Interstellar nano dust dominates the far ultraviolet extinction as well as [producing] the near- and mid-infrared emission of the interstellar medium of the Milky Way and external galaxies"
 
But cosmic dust is nanoscopic and follows QM - not classical physics. QM stands for quantum mechanics. By the Planck law of QM, the atoms in the cosmic dust lack the kT heat capacity to heat dusty plasma and produce near- and mid-infrared emission of the interstellar medium. The absorption of galaxy light cannot raise the temperature of cosmic dust. Instead, conservation can only proceed by a non-thermal mechanism, i.e., the re-emission of redshifted galaxy light. Consequences of cosmic dust by QM in cosmology and astronomy are significant. For details, see above: The Buchalter Cosmology Prize, EWASS-2018, and Nanotechnology-Rome. In this regard, perhaps the IAU Focus Meeting 10 will reach a resolution on cosmic dust by QM instead of classical physics to provide a new direction for cosmology.


Nanoparticles and DNA damage


Over at least the past few decades, NPs are known to cause DNA damage. But the causal  relation of NPs to human health remains unknown. NPs stand for nanoparticles. Chemical reactions of NPs contacting the DNA cannot be the causal relation as DNA damage occurs even with inert NPs, the consequence of which suggests a physical causal relation. DNA damage is known caused in photodynamic therapy by high temperatures from laser heating NPs, but small temperature increases of NPs in a cell from body heat alone cannot damage the DNA.

Contrary to photodynamic therapy, heating of NPs does not cause necrosis of cancer cells from high temperatures because the Planck law of QM precludes  increases in NP temperature as the heat capacity of the quantum sized NPs vanishes. Instead, the laser heat produces EM radiation within the NP beyond the UV.  Unlike temperature, the UV emission suggests the causal relation of NPs to human health is therefore the well-known genotoxicity of DNA to UV radiation. Only body heat is required. The wavelength λ of the emitted EM radiation is, λ = 2nd, where n and d are the refractive index and diameter of the NP. For example, NPs having n = 1.5 damage the DNA by producing EM radiation beyond the UVC (λ < 254 nm ) for NP diameters d < 85 nm. Larger NPs are benign,

In this regard, solar UV is well-known to cause DNA damage to the skin and may lead to cancer, but cannot penetrate the skin to damage internal organs. Contrarily, NPs rescind this paradigm. Indeed, NPs by entering the body in the GM food we eat produce the low levels of UV that damage the DNA of internal organs. The DNA damage from GM food that include NPs in herbicides to enhance crop yields by controlling weed are discussed. GM stands for genetically modified.

To avoid genetic cancers in human evolution from DNA damage caused by NPs in GM food, Monsanto and other herbicide manufacturers should stop use of NPs in controlling weeds in crop fields. Otherwise, the responsible parties may be alleged guilty of a crime against humanity. See Abstract

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