ISM Spectrum The interstellar medium (ISM) spectrum from the FIR through the VIS to the UV has been linked to dust particles. However, explanations of ISM phenomena based on the UV response of chemical species cannot explain the broadband spectra. QED induced EM radiation by dust NPs is shown to provide an alternative  explanation based on the CMB radiation from the surroundings at 2.7 K. Extensions to cosmology and Hubble's law.Cosmology 

Big Bang Theory Theconverse of the blueshift of CMB radiation to produce the ISM spectrum is the light from galaxies and quasars passing through the cosmic dust in the ISM is redshift. Cosmic dust is shown to produce the redshift, and therefore Hubble's expanding universe is suspect. Einstein's notion of a static universe appears correct.


Einstein's Universe and Cosmic Dust  The CBR in Einstein's Universe is shown caused by the emission of the Cyanogen (CN) molecule at 2.64 mm. CN is excited by redshift starlight in DPs having diameters D ~ 1 mm commonly found in stellar disks. Moreover, the Hubble redshift thought to form the basis for the expanding Universe of the BB is actually nothing more than redshift Quasar light in DPs. Both CBR and Hubble redshift are caused by the absorption of starlight as illustrated in DNF08  Dark energy thought to be a function of Hubble redshift is also questionable Dark Energy  Extensions of QED induced EM radiation to cosmic dust suggests Hubble´s redshift that formed the basis for an expanding Universe is erroneous. See   Cosmic Dust and Video


Electrification of Natural Processes Natural processes are proposed electrified by photochemical reactions initiated by VUV radiation induced in NPs by QED. How the NPs form depends on the specific natural process, e.g.,  static electricity comprising positive and negative charges is produced from VUV induced in NPs that form in the rubbing of dissimilar solids, atmospheric electricity is produced by hydronium and hydroxyl ions from VUV induced in ice NPs as water vapor freezes at high altitudes, and flow electricity is produced by free radicals from VUV induced by NP impurities in the flow. All processes are unified by QED induced EM radiation in NPs.


Natural processses  of  static and atmospheric electricity are explained by NPs under QED induced EM radiaiton. Quantum mechanics is shown to limit the kT energy of atoms  to vanishing small levels in NPs that form in the rubbing of surfaces. Natural  Processes 

Nanofluid Thermal Conductivity 
Over a decade, nanofluids comprising small fractions of conductive NPs in liquid coolants have been claimed to significantly increase thermal conductivity above well established  mixing rules. QED induced EM radiation shows that the NPs under collisions from solvent molecules gain kT energy that is conserved by the emission of EM radiation. The EM emission is absorbed in the penetration depth and is balanced by heat flow from the surroundings into the nanofluid making the nanofluid appear more conductive than that given by mixing rules.  Alternative ways to quantify the enhancement of heat transfer  in nanofluids are suggested. Nanofluids are clear example of quantum  effects in heat transfer WSEAS Presentation

Light at Ambient Temperature  QED induced EM radiation is combined with Mie theory to entertain the notion of producing light at ambient temperature from NPs.  The Stefan-Boltzmann equation for radiative heat transfer is modified  by including Mie absorption efficiency in the absorption of BB radiaiton and Kirchoff's law by replacing thermal emission with QED induced EM radiation.  

Surface Chemical Reactions Exoelectron emission (EEE) and photon emission (PE) from surfaces produced by colliding gas molecules is explained by QED induced EM radiaition. The surface is posited to contain NPs that by collisions from gas molecules accumulate low frequency kT energy, the accumulated kT energy frequency up-converted to high frequency EM radiation by QED. Surface chemical reactions therefore are an extenision of nanocatalysts. Chemiluminescence (CL) induced by gold NPs in luminol and CdS/CdSe NPs in water is are extensions of nanocatalysts.


 Flow Electrification by Nanoparticles Flow electrification by NPs is presented consistent with CL ,oxidation of hydrocarbon lliquids, and nanofluids by NPs. Only NP impurites cause the electrification. NPs of oil molecules that cluster are shown unlikely at typic flow  velocities..

Nanocatlysts Similar to CL, chemical reactions absent light emission may be enhanced by NPs. Collision induced heat transferred to NPs from molecules in gaseous or liquid media is conserved by EM emission instead of increase in temperature.

MultiPhoton Excitation The MultiPhoton Excitation (MPE) of molecules under IR radiaition is known to excite energy states higher than that of single IR photons.  Over 30 years ago, the phenomenological model that explains the experimental results by a "ladder" of individual IR photons was proposed by YR Shen et al. In contrast, the physical model of the molecule as a QD explains MPE by supplying IR photons to a QM box that fills-up to excite the higher enrgy states. Discussion of MPE by these models is shown with YR Shen at HKBU.


Nobel Prize in Chemistry  The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2007 was awarded to Gerhard Ertl of the Fritz Haber Institute ro dins Berlin on on the interaction of gas molecules in surface chemical reactions. I am indebted to Dr. Ertl for discussions of how QED induced EM radiation might be involved in surface chemistry. See Condensation of Silver NPs in link below for 2006.


Space Charge Proposal  Space charge in polyethylene(PE) high voltage power cables is proposed caused by NP impurities that detach from surrounding continuum under electrical, mechanical, and thermal stress.  QED induced EM radiation converts the kT  energy of atoms in the NPs to VUV radiation that removes electrons from atoms leaving NPs with positive space charge. Information is proprietary and protected by US patent and copyright.