Quotations


Thought for Us


A man should look for what is, and not for what he thinks should be.


A. Einstein


****************************************************************

The Covid-19 in vivo Vaccination

Traditional vaccine development requires a long time to develop and test a safe antigen, but as in the Covid-19, the attendant social unrest and world-wide economic depression is unacceptable. A new paradigm in vaccines in the control of Covid-19, or any future infectious virus is suggested. The new paradigm is "The Nanoparticle treatment" that acts as an in vivo vaccine for patients tested positive for the Covid-29 virus, the antigens produced by deactivating a few live virions inside the patient's body with UVC radiation, the deactivated virions acting as the antigen to illicit immunity for inactivating the remaining virions in the patient's body as well as future Covid-19 infections. But external UV lamps cannot provide UVC radiation inside the body. In this regard, the UVC is produced from nanoparticles in biodegradable nanoparticles delivered to the patient by intravenous injection. The theory of simple QED predicts 80 nm lipid nanoparticles conserve heat from the surrounding blood into UVC photons to inactivate the live Covid-19 virions. DNA or RNA fragments are not required. Collateral nanoparticle induced DNA damage at low UVC levels is negligible and corrected by DNA repair systems. If the CDC shows efficacy of nanoparticle injection to illicit Covid-19 immunity, the intravenous injection of nanoparticles would be replaced with the more convenient oral delivery in pills. See Paper 

Cosmology by Redshift in Cosmic Dust

Since Hubble, optical redshift measurements giving galaxy velocities higher than observed were accepted by assuming the presence of dark matter lowered the high velocities to levels consistent with Newtonian mechanics. In this way, dark matter was thought to exist in order to explain why the Milky Way rotated faster than observed. Similarly, optical redshift measurements of the M31 spiral galaxy showed high velocities at the dusty periphery that established flat rotation curves as the signature of dark matter. Recently, the Ghost galaxy absent obscuring dust was found to have a falling rotation curve. 

In this paper, dust redshift is shown to be the consequence of the Planck law that precludes atoms in dust less than a certain size from having the heat capacity to allow conservation of galaxy light by a change in temperature. For galaxy photons having wavelengths greater than the size of the dust, the absorption of a single galaxy photon produces heat that is absorbed in a thin penetration depth over the full dust surface, the penetration depth serving as the physical confinement for creating a photon from the energy of an absorbed galaxy photon, the redshift galaxy photon created having halfwavelength equal to the distance opposing penetration depths. Once created, the physical boundary vanishes and the redshift galaxy photon is free to travel to the Earth. Unlike Einstein’s dust-free Universe where optical measurements do indeed measure actual galaxy velocities, velocities in the dusty Universe are highly overstated in estimates of Universe expansion. 

Moreover, CMB radiation thought related to Universe expansion as a relic of the Big Bang is shown produced by blackbody radiation from asteroids in the Oort cloud of our Solar system, the asteroids heated by solar radiation from the Sun. Cosmology based on an expanding Universe from overstated redshift by dust and the CMB as a relic of the Big Bang is highly questionable.

A prelminary  Paper  is available.  A narrated video  Presentation is 25 minutes long is also available. The video quality can be improved using the VLC Media player and adjusting the synchronization to audio -0.2 seconds. Alternatively, you can link https://nanoqed.org/resources/2020/Cosmos20.mp4 and use the VLC Media player.


Covid-19 Patentability

Classical physics allows the atom to have heat capacity at the nanoscale, the conservation of heat proceeding by a change in temperature. However, simple QED based on the Planck law of quantum mechanics denies the atoms in nanoparticles (NPs) the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature, the consequence of which is ~80 nm lipid NPs conserve heat by creating UVC radiation. Patients tested positive for Covid-19 are therefore proposed to be given single intravenous injections of NPs in saline, the NPs emitting UVC to inactivate in vivo a limited number of Covid-19 virions that then act as the antigens to elicit immunity to the remaining virions currently in the patient's body, as well as to future Covid-19 infections. Indeed, simple QED is patentable as an in vivo Covid-19 vaccination; whereas, Moderna's patent based on the surprising discovery that non-lamellar lipid structures somehow produce charge in transfecting mRNA across cell walls is not patentable. However, the NPs may enter the brain and damage neurons and DNA, but with low level NP induced UVC intensity the NP induced damage is expected to be minimal. CDC testing to determine low level NP doses is requested. See preliminary Paper

In summary,

The Moderna patent based on a surprising discovery of non-lamellar lipid structure was properly rejected by the USPTO as not patentable. Moreover, Moderna's inference that charge is somehow produced in non-lamellar lipid structures is invalid. 

Simple QED produces charge depending on the size of NPs < 100 nm formed by lipid structures independent of lamellar or non-lamellar phases, the charge produced by EM radiation removing electrons to produce positive charge. 

Like the Moderna patent based on a surprising discovery of non-laminar lipid structures, simple QED charging based on the theory of the Planck law is also not patentable as scientific theories are not patentable. But applications of scientific theories are patentable. Hence, charging of NPs by simple QED should be patentable. 

The Planck law allows ~80 nm lipid NPs to produce UVC radiation that disinfects the Covid-19 from the heat at body temperature, a significant difference with classical physics that predicts the lipid NP only acquires body temperature.  

Regarding Covid-19 disinfection, simple QED produces UVC from lipid NPs using only the thermal energy of the surrounding blood and tissue. 

In the manner of an in vivo Covid-19 vaccine, the NP treatment of UVC disinfection of a patient tested positive by a single intravenous injection that inactivates a limited number of live virions to produce the inactivated virions that act as the antigen to elicit immunity to inactivate the remaining virions in the body, including future Covid-19 infections.

The FDA is recommended to approve UVC disinfection of Covid-19 in vaccinations of  ~ 80 nm lipid NPs in small quantities. In the blood stream, the disinfection would be rapid.  NPs entering the brain may damage neurons and DNA. Nevertheless, the temporary low UVC levels make risks minimal by allowing DNA recovery by repair systems.  


CMBR and Cosmic Dust

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) evolved from early Big Bang models by Gamow beginning in 1948. Only later in 1965 did Penzias and Wilson discover the microwave radiation coming from space. Dicke and others concluded the CMBR would still be present in the Universe as blackbody EM radiation with a temperature of about 10 K not from a cold source, but rather from the Big Bang expansion of the Universe. 

Today, the CMBR is thought to be blackbody ration at temperature 2.725 K at 160 GHz. Indeed, the 2019 Nobel prize in physics was awarded to J. Peebles for interpreting the CMBR and integrating dark matter and dark energy into the cosmological framework. Like Dicke, the Nobel committee ignored temperatures ~ 2.7 K are a natural consequence of our Solar System. 

Beyond the Planetary System, the Oort Cloud at 10,000 AU is naturally cold at 2.725 K. Unlike the disk-like Planetary System in the ecliptic of the Sun, the Oort cloud is spherical about the Sun allowing the CMBR to be isotropic in all directions.. The equilibrium temperature T of the Oort Cloud debris at distance D from the Sun having radius Rs and temperature Ts may be estimated by assuming blackbody thermal radiation absorbed without reflection. 

Of importance is the black body temperature T of Oort cloud debris is independent of debris size, i.e., the debris may be discrete nanoscopic cosmic dust or asteroid sized  bodies having spacings to allow light from the Universe to be observed on Earth. Clearly, the Oort cloud need not be an opaque spherical shell to qualify as blackbody as reported in the literature.  

Dicke might have realized the Oort Cloud blackbody temperature T ~ 2.725 K at 10,000 AU would have explained the CMBR temperature, but rejected this interpretation because redshift measurements suggested the CMBR exists at distances >> 10,000 AU. Nevertheless, the notion of a blackbody temperature T = 2.725 K exactly at about 10,000 AU is not reasonable. In fact, the CMB temperature is not measured exactly at 2.725 K, but reported as 2.725 +/- 0.00057 K. What this means is the blackbody temperature varies slowly about 10,000 AU. The graph below shows temperature change of  2.725 K occurs at D = 10,492 AU, but is spread over +/- 6 AU, certainly not exactly at 10,492 AU. 

Since the CMBR appears spotted and patchy, the CMB temperature of discrete Oort cloud debris requires similar patchiness. However, the minimum size of the debris is given Planck law at 2.725 K. In the figure below, the Planck law at 300, 100, and 2.725 K shows the minimum wavelength l at which the debris can have finite temperature occurs at the classical edge of the Planck law at 200, 1000, and 20,000 microns, respectively. Taking refractive index n = 1.5, simple QED gives the respective minimum debris diameter d = l/2n = 67, 333, and 6700 microns. What this means the minimum size of Oort cloud debris at 2.725 K spread over the +/- 6 AU band are not micron sized particles, but rather rather small asteroids having diameters larger than about 6.7 meters. At 2.725 K, only asteroids > 6.7 m emit thermal blackbody radiation at 160 GHz. Indeed, all solid matter <  6.7 m, say 2.2 m, does not emit blackbody radiation, and instead emits non-thermal simple QED radiation < 4 MHz while 1 micron dust emits near IR at about 3 microns. 

The issue of whether micron sized dust may be treated as a blackbody radiator goes back about 50 years. In 1969, Purcell questioned the assumption of blackbody radiation from micron-sized intergalactic dust on the basis micron-sized objects are very poor radiators of millimeter waves and thus cannot be black. Contrary to Purcell, astronomers have continued to incorrectly assume micron-sized dust responds to temperatures as blackbody radiators, an assumption that continues to this day in the explanation of IR spectra in the ISM. The Planck law shows that for all temperatures < 300 K the micron-sized dust cannot be a blackbody radiator, and instead conserves solar heat by emitting non-thermal simple QED radiation.

On CMBR redshift, Dicke probably assumed the dust in our Solar System would not alter the validity of the high redshifts  associated with an expanding Universe. However, cosmic dust permeates our Solar System and absorbs galaxy light prior to reaching the Earth. Today, dust absorption is thought to increase temperature to produce IR spectra. But dust is < 1 micron and nanoscopic that by the Planck law lacks the heat capacity to increase in temperature. By the theory of simple QED, conservation of an absorbed galaxy photon proceeds by the emission of a photon observed on Earth as a redshifted galaxy photon.

Conclusions

 What Penzias and Wilson were measuring in 1965 was likely blackbody radiation from asteroids in the Oort cloud that today is known as CMBR given by the black body temperature of ~ 2.725 K at frequency 160 GHz. Gamow's Big Bang model advanced by Dicke and concluding the CMBR was the relic of Universe expansion is highly questionable as the CMBR created in the Oort cloud of our Solar system suggests the Big Bang never happened. A preliminary Paper on the effects of cosmic dust in Astronomy is available.


ATP by Chemiosmosis ?

In1961, Mitchell proposed ATP synthesis in mitochondria occurs by oxidative phosphorylation in chemiosmosis from a flow of H+ protons across the inner membrane. However, ATP synthesis by chemiosmosis has a history of controversy. In order to show chemiosmosis did indeed produce ATP with H+ proton gradient, the acid-bath experiment was performed. Chloroplasts were acidified in a pH4 solution and then immersed in a basic pH 10 bath, thereby forming a H+ gradient across inner membranes. ATP was measured allowing the conclusion a H+ gradient produced the ATP consistent with chemiosmosis.

However, ATP may have been created by the heat of titration producing  an increase in temperature of the mixture. But the nanoscopic grana and stroma in the chloroplast cannot increase in temperature as the heat capacity vanishes by the Planck law. By the theory of simple QED, the grana conserve the heat of titration by creating UV radiation that produces ATP by the dehydration reaction shown above, i.e.,

ADP + Pi + UV = ATP + H2O.

What this means is the ATP produced in the acid-bath experiment was most likrly produced by UV enhanced dehydration. Indeed, Carl Sagan et al. showed ATP was produced by UV enhanced dehydration in 1963. Since ADP and phosphates Pi were likely present on the early Earth, UV was assocaiated with the origin of life.

On the early Earth, UVC was intense, but after the ozone layer formed, UVC greatly diminished and to survive the mitochondria was required to evolve its own source of UV.

What was, and now what is the UV source?

One possibility is simple QED - a nanoscale heat transfer process based on the Planck law of quantum mechanics differing significantly from that of classical physics. The Planck law denies atoms in nanoscale regions of mitochondria the heat capacity to change in temperature as occurs inclassical physics. Instead, heat Q in mitochondria is conserved by the emission of EM radiation standing in the space between adjacent cristae. Indeed, mitochondria produce Planck energy E = hc/2nd at UVC levels in spaces d between 50 - 100 nm between adjacent cristae.

Conclusions,

In the acid-bath experiment, ATP was produced by UV enhanced dehydration from ADP + ribose between nanoscale spaces in stroma of chloroplasts - not by H+ protons in chemiosmosis.

Mitochondria produce ATP by UV induced dehydration between cristae that by simplicity alone supersedes the chemiosmosis. However, the UV also damages DNA, but DNA repair systems allow almost complete recovery.

Survival of the species from the early Earth to this day has been a close balance between ATP produced and attendant DNA damage. as corrected by DNA repair systems.

Darwin's origin of the species most likely evolved from intense UV enhanced DNA mutations on the early Earth.

A  preliminary Abstract is available


Nanopartcle Treatment of Swine Flu


Classical physics allows the atom to have heat capacity at the nanoscale, the conservation of heat proceeding by a change in temperature. However, simple QED based on the Planck law of quantum mechanics denies the atom in nanostructures the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature, the consequence of which is any heat is conserved by creating standing EM radiation that is released to the surroundings. Unlike electronic quantum states, simple QED is based on size dependent quantum states depending on the dimensions of the nanostructure over which the EM waves stand. UV radiation is known to disinfect virus in the air or on surrounding surfaces, but not inside body organs. 

In this regard, patients diagnosed positive for Swine virus are proposed disinfected by a nanoparticle (NP) treatment comprising injections of 80 nm lipid nanoparticles (NPs) in saline, the NPs emitting simple QED induced UVC radiation to disinfect the Swine virus powered only by body heat. See above. However, the UVC also damages DNA, but at low UVC levels, the DNA damage is corrected by repair systems to justify NP Treatment, especially in life-threating situations.

In summary,

In simple QED, the Planck law allows the NPs to produce EM radiation to disinfect the Swine flu H1N1 virus from the heat at body temperature, a significant difference with classical physics that predicts the NPs only acquire the temperature of the bath.  

The NP Treatment in Swine flu H1N1 based on simple QED induced UVC radiation is easily an easily implemented solution. Considerable data exists to support the argument that NPs kill organisms and damage the DNA. However, only simple QED argues the NPs depending on size create UV radiation in equilibrating the thermal energy of the surrounding blood and tissue. In NPs, UVC photons are produced at body temperature.

The NP Treatment is a vaccine because the antigen is the inactivated virus created from in vivo killing of the real virus in a Swine flu infected patient with the UVC emitted from the lipid NPs. By contrast, traditional vaccinations use antigens of the real virus inactivated in a laboratory by standard UV lamps, the inactivated virus included in the vaccine before injection in the patient.  

The dose of NPs in saline solution can only be determined by CDC and FDA controlled testing with emphasis placed on neuron and DNA damage. The lowest NP concentration that disinfects the Swine flu H1N1 virus is the goal as DNA damage from low intensity UV can be corrected by DNA repair systems. For Swine flu patients in a life-threatening condition, DNA damage appears justified.

The NP Treatment of Swine flu H1N1 assumes IV injection of NPs in saline. But the non-invasive pulmonary route also reaches the lungs, and as such is an attractive alternative. Nebulizers currently appear to be the most appropriate devices for the safe delivery of large amounts of NPs without the need of professional medical personnel and are recommended for development in administering the UV disinfection of any and all virus. 

The CDC vaccine paradigm in controlling infectious disease appears to no longer applicable be as the viruses simply mutate. Only the NP treatment of patients having the actual virus is relevant, of which the NP Treatment creates a few antigens upon UVC disinfection of a limited number of real viruses by 80 nm lipid NPs, the immune system inactivating the remaining real virus virions. The UVC not only disinfects the virus at hand, but any mutations thereof. Indeed, the NP treatment may in fact be the long sought Universal vaccine.

A preliminary Paper is available.


Covid-19 damage in Mitochondria of the Elderly
 

Chinese researchers have not interpreted Covid-19 symptoms as pulmonary, but rather as neurological. Indeed, neurological symptom are classified into CNS symptoms including headache, dizziness, disturbance of consciousness, acute cerebrovascular disease including epilepsy, while symptoms peripheral to the CNS include loss of taste, smell, and appetite. More impartantly, the Chinese have reported Covid-19 cases of viral encephalitis related to the CNS based on tests of cerebrospinal fluid.

Even the Covid-19 symptom of difficulty in breathing long-thought to be pulmonary is controlled by the brain and the CNS, and in fact the Covid-19 is now thought to originate in the brain and not the lungs. Indeed, mice models show Covid-19 is found in the brain and not the lungs as the COVID-19 virion enters the brain directly through the olfactory system of the nose instead of the lungs.

Mitochondria need oxygen to convert glucose to ATP, but in the elderly the ATP level is compromised by a reduction of mitochondria from UV induced fragmentation from Covid-19 virions. To offset the loss of mitochondria, the brain signals the remaining active mitochondria to increase ATP production, but breathing becomes difficult. In addition, aging also increases the common genetic depletion in mtDNA which in combination with fragmentation causes further reductions in mitochondria leading to death.

Simple QED explains the UV emission from the Covid-19 virion as a consequence of the Planck law that denies nanoscopic virions the heat capacity to conserve heat from the surroundings by an increase in temperature, and instead heat is converted to size dependent wavelengths of EM radiation. For ~100 nm Covid-19 virions, the simple QED radiation emitted is in the UVB (~ 320 nm). Indeed, the UV radiation from Covid-19 virions is consistent with accumulated gene deletion under external UVA (> 360 nm) and mitochondrial fragmentation with UVB (< 311 nm) radiation. 

In summary, 

Difficulty in Covid-19 breathing begins in the brain - not the lungs. The elderly already presenting high mtDNA gene deletion and mitochondrial fragmentation induced breathing difficulty are under extreme risk from UV radiation induced from Covid-19 virions in the brain. 

An Abstract is available


The Nanoparticle Treatment

\\
The CDC approach to the Covid-19 virus is to quickly develop a vaccine which even if successful is impossible to implement for the entire World population, let alone unacceptable because of attendant social unrest and economic collapse. 

Only a treatment of Covid-19 patients tested positive for the Covid-19 is possible. 

In this regard, UV is known to disinfect viruses in the air and on external surfaces, but a source of UV within the body is not known. President Trump was right about the Covis-19 treatment using UV disinfection, but a UV source inside the body of a Covid-19 patient is not known. In this dilemma, nanoparticles (NPs) delivered intravenously to the bloodstream are proposed to provide the UV disinfection.
  
To extend President Trump's suggestion, simple QED theory based on the Planck law claims atoms in NPs lack the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature, and instead NPs convert heat from the blood into EM radiation at a wavelength depending on the NP size, e.g., 80 nm lipid NPs emit UVC (254 nm) radiation. The NP treatment of UVC disinfection kills the live virus in the infected patient to produce the inactivated virus that acts as the antigen to elicit immunity to subsequent infection. 

Only lipid NPs in saline are included in the NP vaccine; genetic based fragments are excluded. 

What this means is the NP vaccine not only disinfects the patient of CoVid-19, but also elicits immunity to subsequent CoVid-19 infections. By controlling the NP dose, the UVC is held to low intensity levels minimizing collateral DNA damage in adjacent tissue to allow recovery by DNA repair systems.

In conclusion,

 Since it is unlikely vaccines will not be available in the far near tern, the CDC is requested to promptly initiate the  development and testng of the Nanoparticle Treatment of CoVid-19. 

 See Paper  and 25 minute  MP4 Video Presentation. MP4 file is large at 105 Mb.

.An abreviated version of "The Nanoparticle Treatment" that excludes the importance of UVC in ATP synthesis is available. See "The UVC Treatment" in Paper and 12 minute MP4 Video Presentation having length 50 Mb.


The in vivo CoVid-19 Vaccine - Injection or Pills?


Vaccine development in preventing CoVid-19 requires long development and testing time which is unacceptable to attendant social unrest and world economic collapse. Instead of preventative vaccines, a CoVid-19 treatment of patients already tested positive is proposed using intravenous IV injections of nanoparticles (NPs). Only biodegradable lipid NPs delivered by IV injection are included in the CoVid-19 treatment in this paper. Oral delivery is preferred over IV injections the supporting paper of which is forthcoming.  


Traditional  preventive vaccines include the inactivated virus, aluminum adjuvants, formaldehyde, antibiotics, and stabilizers, but in the bloodstream of the CoVid-19 patient none of which are usually found. Indeed, only the live virus exists. UV light can inactivate the live virus, but no in vivo UV sources are known within the human body. 

In this regard, simple QED theory based on the Planck law denies atoms in NPs the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature. Instead, NPs convert heat from the blood into EM radiation at a wavelength depending on the NP size. e.g., ~ 80 nm lipid NPs emit UVC (254 nm) radiation. The UVC kills the live virus to produce the inactivated virus that acts as the antigen in a vaccine providing the in vivo immunity to prevent subsequent infection. 

What this means is the NPs not only disinfect the patient of CoVid-19, but also provide immunity. By controlling the NP dose, the UVC is held to low levels of collateral DNA damage allowing recovery by DNA repair systems. 

In summary,

By simple QED, the Planck law allows the lipid NPs to produce in vivo EM radiation to in vivo disinfect the CoVid-19 virus from heat at body temperature, a significant difference with classical physics that predicts the NPs only acquire body temperature. UVC photon are created in NPs under EM confinement at body temperature and do require ~37,000 K temperatures. 

With regard to providing CoVid-19 disinfection treatments, simple QED induced UV radiation from NPs offers an easily implemented solution. Considerable theory exists to support the argument that NPs kill viruses, but a physical mechanism does not exist. Only simple QED argues the NPs depending on size create UV radiation in equilibrating the thermal energy of the surrounding blood and tissue.

NPs convert in vivo heat from the blood into EM radiation at a wavelength depending on the NP size. For ~80 nm lipid NPs, UVC (254 nm) radiation kills the live CoVid-19 virus to create an inactivated virus that acts as an antigen in a vaccine provides immunity to prevent subsequent infection.

The dose of NPs in saline solution can only be determined by CDC and FDA controlled testing with emphasis placed on neuron and DNA damage. The lowest NP concentration that disinfects the CoVid-19 is the goal as collateral DNA damage to adjacent tissue from low intensity UV can be corrected by DNA repair systems. For CoVid-19 patients in a life-threatening condition, DNA damage would appear justified.

Over the past century, the mechanism by which adjuvants of aluminum salts (alum) are thought to stimulate immune response of vaccine antigens is nothing more than simple QED induced UV radiation from ~100 nm alum NPs that aggregate to form the micron size > 500 nm particles actually observed. 

The CDC vaccine paradigm as the norm used in controlling infectious disease appears to no longer be applicable as the CoVid-19 virus will simply mutate or other viruses may appear. Genetic basis to the CoVid-19 excludes the effect of simple QED induced EM radiation. Only a UVC treatment of patients diagnosed as having the CoVid-19 by intravenous injections of ~80 nm NPs, or the equal appears relevant as vaccinations for all people in the in the world is unrealistic, if not impossible.

A preliminary Paper is available.


Coronavirus Mystery Symptoms


The Coronavirus causes severe respiratory problems. The 'cytokine storm' hypothesis suggests the immune system overreacts to the threat of Coronavirus by releasing excess cytokines that reduce the white blood cells (WBCs) of the immune system. Even so, the 'cytokine storm' finds difficulty in explaining Coronavirus mysteries including pulmonary symptoms of blood clotting and the neurological symptom of the loss of smell. 

The Coronavirus is thought to enter lung cells through ACE2 receptors. But the virus must first pass through the nose, and in mouse models the virus is not found in the lung, but in the brain. Since the olfactory nerve cells lack ACE2 receptors, the virus must somehow burrow through the cell wall. In this regard, point sources of EM radiation are known to ionize cell walls and release cytokines, but cannot be translated to the release of cytokines in the nose unless the virus itself is a source of EM radiation. 

In this regard, the theory of simple QED asserts the Coronavirus is indeed a source of EM radiation at levels depending on the size of the body and spikes. Simple QED is based on the Planck law that denies the nanoscopic Coronavirus the heat capacity to conserve heat from the surroundings by an increase in temperature, and instead size dependent EM radiation is emitted.  The Coronavirus spikes (~15 nm) diameter emit EUV (~ 50 nm) radiation to allow the virus to burrow through cell walls while the virus body (~ 100 nm) emits UVB (~ 360 nm) radiation to initiate the 'cytokine storm' and damage the DNA of WBC leading to reduced immunity with DNA damaged brain neurons expressing CNS related neuropathic symptoms. 

Treatment of patients tested positive for the Coronavirus is proposed of disinfection by UVC (~248 nm) radiation from intra-venous injections of ~80 nm biodegradable lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) in saline solution. By controlling the dose, the UVC is held to low levels to minimize collateral DNA damage. 

A preliminary Paper   is available


In summary,

In simple QED, the Planck law allows the LNPs to produce EM radiation to disinfect the Coronavirus from heat at body temperature, a significant difference with classical physics that predicts the LNPs only acquire the temperature of the bath.  In LNPs, UVC photons do not require high temperatures and are produced at body temperature.

 With regard to providing Coronavirus disinfection treatments, simple QED induced UV radiation from LNPs offers an easily implemented solution. Considerable data exists to support the argument that LNPs kill organisms and damage the DNA. However, only simple QED argues the LNPs depending on size create UV radiation in equilibrating the thermal energy of the surrounding blood and tissue.

 The dose of LNPs in saline solution can only be determined by CDC and FDA controlled testing with emphasis placed on neuron and DNA damage. The lowest LNP concentration that disinfects the Coronavirus is the goal as DNA damage from low intensity UV can be corrected by DNA repair systems. For Coronavirus patients in a life-threatening condition, DNA damage appears justified.

 Coronavirus symptoms in the brain expressed by the loss of the sense of smell are neurological induced by simple QED induced UVC radiation. More importantly, UVC excitation induces DNA damage and apoptosis in WBC and brain neurons explaining how the Coronavirus may lead to viral encephalitis.

 The UVC radiation from the Coronavirus may explain the mystery of why a 'storm of blood clots' are being found in Coronavirus patients and why young children are expressing significant inflammation.
 
The vaccine paradigm as the norm in controlling infectious disease appears to no longer applicable as the Coronavirus will simply mutate or other viruses may appear. Genetic basis to the Coronavirus excludes the effect of simple QED induced EM radiation. Only a UVC treatment of patients diagnosed as having the Coronavirus by intravenous injections of 80 nm LNPs, or the equal is relevant.

A preliminary Paper  is available.


Moderna Vaccine Tests


The Bangkok Post reported PR that  Moderna found promising results for their coronavirus vaccine tests. Moderna claims the vaccine is safe and able to stimulate an immune response against the virus.

 But how was the immune response stimulated?

As shown below for Remdesivir, the ~ 80 nm Lipid NPs that carry the RNA emit UVC radiation that stimulates the immune response. Gilead did not report NP size, but is rumored to have used 5-20 nm nanoparticles which are not optimum. The 30% reduction in hospital stay observed for remdesivir is likely due to the presence of some 75-95 nm LNPs in the Gilead formulation. However, Moderna tightly controls the Lipid size in a 10 nm range about 80 nm and therefore Moderna results were expected and are far better than for Remdesivir.


UV Disinfection of Coronavirus by Lipid Nanoparticles


Classical physics allows the atom to have heat capacity at the nanoscale, the conservation of heat proceeding by a change in temperature. However, simple QED based on the Planck law of quantum mechanics denies the atom in nanostructures the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature, the consequence of which is any heat is conserved by creating standing EM radiation that is released to the surroundings. Unlike electronic quantum states, simple QED is based on size dependent quantum states depending on the dimensions of the nanostructure over which the EM waves stand. 

UV radiation is known to disinfect Coronavirus in the air or on surrounding surfaces, but not inside body organs. In this regard, patients diagnosed positive for Coronavirus are proposed disinfected by a single intramuscular (IM) injection of ~ 80 nm lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) that emit UV radiation to disinfect the Coronavirus. Powered only by body heat, the UV radiation also damages DNA, but at low UV levels the DNA damage is corrected by DNA repair systems to justify UV disinfection of Coronavirus while avoiding collateral damage, especially in life-threating situations.

BARDA funding is requested for UV disinfection of Coronavirus by IM injections of  saline solutions of LNPs and FDA testing. Extensions are made to inhalation of LNPs directly into the lung including currently available Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation (UBI) therapy.

A preliminary Paper is available.


Letter to President Trump


On April 9, proposal MCM2020-01491 was filed with BARDA  for FDA testing of the UV disinfection of Coronavirus. But not hearing from BARDA, I sent a letter to President Trump om May 7 requesting BARDA tell me the status of UV disinfection by nanoparticles as well as a request for funding to perform related tests in Berlin.  See Letter 

The impending US economic crisis caused by the Coronavirus can only be avoided, if at all, by opening the economy immediately. The FDA and CDC insistence of having more time for testing and vaccine development before opening the economy will only make economic depression a far greater problem than the Coronavirus. Vaccines as the paradigm for the Coronavirus are futile as the Coronavirus will only mutate. Only a treatment of patients having the Coronavirus is relevant, of which UV disinfection by ~ 70-90 nm Lipid nanoparticles is likely to accommodates mutations and any future virus. Both Gilead and Moderna use similar size NPs to carry RNA drugs should reduce hospital stays significantly, but the drugs carried are irrelevant as the Coronavirus is disinfected by the UV emission from the carrier.        


Remdesivir: A Coronavirus Treatment?


On April 28-29, the treatment of Coronavirus by injections of the drug Remdesivir has been highly publicized. However,  tests of mortality and hospital stay in China showed no effect while in the US only about 30% reduction in mortality and hospital stay were reported.  See Paper However, ultraviolet (UVC) disinfection of the Coronavirus is almost instantaneous as suggested in the following release to the Bangkok Post on April 30.


The UVC produced by NPs requires IV injections of NPs in a saline solution into the bloodstream as the Coronavirus in the lungs quickly spreads through the body to other organs. Medical professionals to implement the injections are required. To allow the patient to treat the Coronavirus own his own, the NPs may be placed in a pill taken orally. But the NPs must transit the stomach to reach the bloodstream, and therefore the time to for the NPs to disinfect the Coronavirus may take a few hour, but certainly not 11-15 days,

   
 Coronavirus Ultraviolet (UVC) Disinfection


In 2020, UV disinfection of viruses became of great importance. The Coronavirus known as COVID-19 became a pandemic  threatening to destroy the economic future of the world, although in severity Coronavirus is only comparable to influenza. Nevertheless, there is no vaccine or specific treatment for COVID-19, the disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus, or SARS-CoV-2. In this regard, Coronavirus disinfection by external UV radiation would resolve the pandemic, but only if the virus is in the air or on surfaces.  

In  Coronavirus infections, the individual does not experience symptoms until days later, and so by then the virus has infected the blood stream and internal organs. External UV radiation no longer works, but no source of UV radiation is known within the human body. Hence, a vaccination or a specific treatment for COVID-19 is required, but vaccines requiring time for development and testing are not viable as immediate control of Coronovirus. 

Recently, the proposal was made to use nanoparticles (NPs) to attach to the Coronavirus disrupting their structure with a combination of IR light treatment to cause a structural change that stops the ability of the virus to survive and reproduce. See  Paper However, the structural change necessary to produce UV radiation necessary to disinfect the Coronavirus is not identified. In contrast, simple QED based on the Planck law allows silver NPs to produce UVC radiation to disinfect the Coronavirus from the heat at body temperature as illustrated below,


The disinfection of viruses by UV radiation has a long history. In 1877, microorganisms in test tubes containing Pasteur’s solution, an artificial nutrient fluid for cultivating organisms, upon exposure to sunlight prevented the growth of the organisms for several months. About the same time, Tyndall confirmed sunlight neutralized organisms dependent on intensity, duration, and wavelength, with the UV wavelengths of the solar spectrum being the most effective. However, the specific UV wavelengths of organism disinfection of about 260 nm were not identified until 1944. Thereafter, the production of pyrimidine dimers in DNA that block virus reproduction was demonstrated after exposure to UV radiation, thereby providing the basis for UV disinfection of biological systems.

The purpose of this paper is to present the simple QED theory of nanoscale heat transfer to explain how NPs can produce UV radiation within the human body to disinfect the Coronavirus.  Developed over the past decade, simple QED can be implemented in vaccinations or specific treatments without long FDA approval times.

In summary,

Coronavirus vaccinations and specific disinfection treatment aside, simple QED induced UVC radiation from silver NPs offers an easily implemented solution. Considerable data exists to support the argument that NPs kill organisms and damage the DNA. However, only simple QED argues the NPs create UVC radiation from the thermal energy of the surrounding blood and tissue, and

The real danger of Coronavirus is World economic collapse - not the death of humans. In a world of 7 billion people, Coronavirus deaths of 1 million is only < 0,02% and humanity will survive. But the loss of life from economic collapse will be far greater, and

Vaccines at best cannot stop the Corona as mutations will appear, let alone other viruses yet to be imagined.  In contrast, UVC disinfection of viruses is the long term and only solution, and.  .

The FDA is recommended to approve UVC disinfection of Coronavirus in vaccinations of  ~100 nm silver ( or biodegradable ) NPs in small quantities. In the blood stream, the disinfection would be rapid.  But there is a danger - any NPs entering the brain may damage neurons and DNA. Nevertheless, for patients in a life-threatening condition, the attendant brain damage would appear justified. 

A preliminary Paper and PR are available.      


Endogenous UV in Warburg's Theory of Cancer


The Warburg theory on the origin of cancer proposes cancer cells undergo rapid growth by glucose fermentation upon the lack of oxygen in respiration. Once Watson and Crick discovered the DNA structure, Warburg's theory fell by the wayside to the genetic explanations of cancer. But almost 70 years later, genetic theory has failed to locate the genes that explains the origin of cancer.  

In this paper, the Warburg theory is extended to include endogenous UV created by simple QED in peroxisomes as the cellular organelle fermenting glucose. Simple QED is a nanoscale heat transfer theory based on the Planck law that requires atoms in the nanoscale regions of the peroxisomes to conserve metabolic heat by creating endogenous UV radiation instead of increasing in temperature. 

By simple QED, high metabolic heat during rapid cancer growth produces intense endogenous UV that mutates DNA, a finding that Warburg lacking a source of UV could not explain. Geneticist argue the DNA mutations occur before rapid growth, but the mechanism is still not known. Moreover, endogenous UV in peroxisomes during fermentation allows ATP synthesis to proceed by UV enhanced dehydration instead of oxidation by chemiosmosis. 


In summary,

      Warburg's theory that cancer develops every time cells in respiration are deprived of oxygen for a sufficient period of time followed by fermentation by anaerobic glycolysis. In this paper, the Warburg theory is paraphrased:

 Warburg's theory modified to include endogenous UV in peroxisomes produced by the simple QED
conversion of rapid metabolic heating explains the DNA mutations observed in cancer cells after
rapid growth, a claim Warburg lacking a UV source could not make.
 
      \Endogenous UV enhances glycolysis by increasing glucose consumption, lactate rate, and glycolytic flux.  Conversely, diabetic drugs metformin and sitagliptin that block UV from glucose decrease fermentation and by Warburg reduce cancer growth.

      DNA metabolic genes in the AKT pathway are activated by endogenous UV to make the metabolic conversion from oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolysis, but may not be necessary ATP is produced from dehydration synthesis.

      The argument: "Without peroxisomes there could be no way for cells to produce peroxides necessary for metabolism, but peroxides are also toxic and there could not be any way to rid peroxides from the body" is false. Endogenous UV can both produce and rid peroxides.

     Peroxisomes involved in the  oxidation of long chain fatty acids to acetyl CoA, a process that is not possible in mitochondria.  The breaking of single and double carbon bonds along the fatty acid backbone require UV energies of 3.6 and 6.3 eV. UVC energy of 4.88 eV is not sufficient to break carbon double bonds, but simple QED can produce UV at 200 nm in peroxisomes. 

   The controversy between Warburg and geneticists on the origin of cancer is not resolved by endogenous UV created in peroxisomes. But endogenous UV raises Warburg's cancer metabolism to the level that the search for a cancer or metabolic gene initiating cancer is may no longer be important. 

A preliminary Paper is available..


Oxidative Stress by Endogenous UV


Since the discovery of ATP synthesis in mitochondria by oxidative phosphorylation across the inner membrane, oxidative stress has been considered the errant consequence of aerobic metabolism based on chemiosmosis comprising a chain of complex redox reactions with electron transfer from donors to acceptors assisted by enzymes. But consistent with mitochondria evolving on the early Earth under intense solar UV radiation, ATP synthesis was more likely to have evolved by UV enhanced dehydration reactions of ADP and phosphate instead of redox reactions by hydrolysis. Over time, mitochondria evolved nanoscale spaces between cristae equal to the half-wavelengths of the absorbed solar UV radiation. But once ozone formed in the atmosphere, solar UV was reduced and survival required mitochondria to evolve their own endogenous UV source. How this happened is proposed explained by simple QED.

Simple QED is a method of nanoscale heat transfer based on the Planck law that precludes atoms in mitochondria the heat capacity to conserve ATP heat by an increase in temperature. Instead, simple QED conserves ATP heat by creating UV radiation in the spaces between cristae. In mitochondria, simple QED converts ATP heat into Planck energy E = hc/2nd, where h is Planck's constant, c is the speed of light while n and d are the refractive index and spacing between cristae. With regard to ATP synthesis, simple QED was shown on this 2019 website to produce EM radiation near the UVC.  A preliminary Abstract is available.

In summary,

Not only does endogenous UV in mitochondria produce the ATP necessary for survival, but has the unavoidable downside of damaging DNA and by exciting oxygen produced ROS - superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals.

Oxidative stress is not the errant production of ROS from electrons with oxygen in the chain of redox reactions of hydrolysis.

Hydrogen peroxide in Redox homeostasis is not magically created, but rather requires EM energy > 5eV from endogenous UV.

Survival required the mitochondria evolve antioxidants and enzymes as protective UV absorbers and DNA repair systems. Antioxidants include carotenoids and EGCG while enzymes comprised catalases and peroxidases.

Solar UV and DNA mutagenesis on the early Earth explains the similarity and differences in Darwin's species thereby favoring ATP synthesis by UV enhanced dehydration over chemiosmosis.

Finally, mitochondrial survival on Earth has always been a balance between competing effects of UV radiation.


Global Cooling by Injecting Black Carbon

into the Stratosphere?


Global cooling by injecting black carbon (BC) aerosols into the stratosphere is currently not considered a viable geoengineering solution to compensate for global warming. However, geoengineering analysis methods assume the BC particles upon absorbing solar radiation follow classical physics and increase in temperature. But for sub-micron nanoparticles (NPs) the Planck law denies atoms in BC particles the heat capacity to increase in temperature in absorbing solar radiation, the consequence of which allows BC to be effective in compensating for global warming. In thus paper, classical physics is superseded by simple QED - a nanoscale heat transfer process based on the Planck law - is used to show the advantages of radiative forcing by BC absorption compared to reflective aerosols. The analysis uses the simple QED heat transfer process based on the Planck law that conserves heat by creating standing EM radiation inside the BC particle having wavelength 2nd, where n and d are the refractive index and diameter of the spherical BC particle. For BC having n = 2.4, the desired 10-micron wavelength for emission through the 8-12 microns atmospheric window requires d ~ 2 microns. The BC particles injected at the top of the stratosphere having high absorb all incident UV-VIS-NIR solar radiation. For a 1% absorption of solar radiation in the stratosphere or negative radiative forcing of -1.6 W/m2 at the Earth's surface, 3.4 million tons of BC are required at a cost from $ 1-2 trillion. Alternative geoengineering using Earth based BC mirrors is discussed.


The injection of BC aerosols into the stratosphere to absorb solar radiation and provide obtain            -1.6 W/m2 radiative forcing avoids the problem that reflective of solar radiation also includes an absorptive fraction that increases stratosphere temperature. Regardless of whether absorptive or reflective forcing surpass each other, the problem is the practicality of injecting 3 million ton of BC or sulfur aerosols in the stratosphere. 

A more practical BC global cooling alternative is suggested.

One alternative to injecting BC particles into the stratosphere is placing a number of space mirrors in orbit to reflect solar radiation back into space. Proposed in 2006, the mirrors having an area of a square kilometer made of thin plastic reflective films to illuminate photovoltaic devices producing electricity. Space mirrors are considered difficult to implment.

Another alternative is to extend the concept of the injection of 2-micron BC particle aerosols into the stratosphere by providing a large number of flat 100 m square BC mirrors on the Earth surface. Although avoiding the difficulty of injecting BC particles into the stratosphere, geoengineering of many Earth based BC mirrors is still formidable. The BC mirrors are flat having a 2-micron BC layer on a silicon substrate, the BC layer facing the sun and the back-silicon surface facing the Earth surface as shown below.


Similar to BC particles, the BC mirrors have thickness of 2 microns, consistent with the same simple QED emission wavelength 2nd ~ 10 microns. Hence, simple QED converts the heat from the absorption of all UV-VIS-NIR solar radiation at the Earth's surface to 10-micron radiation that escapes the Earth through the 8-12 microns atmospheric window.

A formidable 123 million BC mirrors are required spread over the Earth's surface. Each mirror is square with 100 m on a side comprised of 1 square meter panels, each panel consisting of a 2-micron BC front surface supported on substrate transparent to 10-micron radiation, e.g., silicon. The Earth based BC mirrors offer advantages over injecting 2-micron spherical BC particles into the stratosphere as health problems and the cost of continual BC particle injection into the stratosphere are avoided. Moreover, Earth based BC mirrors are more feasible than inflatable reflective mirrors deployed in space and would be more attractive if IR photovoltaic devices are developed to utilize the 10-micron emission from the silicon substrate.
  
Geoengineering with BC mirrors is still prohibitively expensive, but may eventually be necessary for the survival of the human species. Since removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is a decades long solution, the recommendation here follows that of others: In the near-term BC emissions be immediately reduced while Earth-based BC mirror or other concepts are developed.

A  preliminary Paper is available.


The International Summit on Nanomecine is to be held on April 13 and 14 in Prague.

Progress of NanoMedicine over the past decades has been remarkable, and many interesting applications in nanodrug delivery have been reported. But despite advances, there are still challenges in understanding the interaction of nanodrugs and carriers with DNA during delivery.

Indeed, the question has been raised of whether the nanoscopic drug carrier may damage DNA to offset advantages of the drug, e.g., adjuvants in vaccines to activate the immune system comprise submicron (< 100 nm) NPs of aluminum that cross the blood-brain-barrier and by remaining in the brain for an extended time to damage DNA and neurons perhaps even causing neuro-degenerative diseases and autism. In this regard, the potenrial for NPs to produce UV radiation upon equilibrating with blood temperature is of great interest.

In this regard, the Abstract and Presentation is presented. Faster to download than open file;

A second paper on the endogenous Broadband UV in mitochondria is described as follows.

In the 1960's, the hallmark of molecular biology was Mitchell's discovery of ATP synthesis in mitochondria by chemiosmosis based on oxidative phosphorylation across the inner membrane through a chain of complex redox reactions with electron transfer from donors to acceptors assisted by enzymes.

Consistent with Sagan's finding that mitochondria evolving on the early Earth under intense solar UV radiation, ATP synthesis more likely occurred by UV enhanced dehydration reactions of ADP and phosphate instead of redox reactions by hydrolysis. Under constant UV absorption over time, mitochondria naturally evolved nanoscale spaces between cristae tissue similar to the half-wavelengths of the absorbed solar UV radiation. Upon ozone forming in the atmosphere, solar UV was significantly reduced, and for survival mitochondria utilized the cristae spaces to produce their own endogenous UV source.

Cristae spaces alone do not produce UV radiation. But metabolic heat within mitochondria produces UV standing between adjacent cristae by the process of simple QED, a nanoscale heat transfer process that conserves heat by creating EM radiation instead of increasing in temperature. The UV wavelength necessary for ATP synthesis is assumed to be in the UVC, but the UVC is unlikely to coincide wtth the the cristae spacings. Hence, Broadband UV is directed to selectting the closest upper bound to the UVC being excited as then the upper bound can assist ATP synthesis by fluorescing down to the UVC. However, fluorescence is an inefficient process and the closest upper bound to the UVC is necessary for high efficiency.

To allow UV induced ATP synthesis including processing of diverse proteins, the UV standing between adjacent cristae is extended to broadband UV comprising standing UV over a number of nearby cristae in drosophila and human lung species as shown below.


Conclusions:

Broadband UV enhances ATP synthesis by dehydration by increasing the efficiency of fluorescence.

The UV level for mitochondria species may not be UVC. Experiments are required to determine the optimum UV wavelength to enhance ATP synthesis by dehydration. Tthe UV wavelength which optimizes UV enhanced ATP synthesis of mitochondria species must be determined by experiment.

A preliminary second paper Paper1 and Presentation  is available


The 19th Electromagnetic and Light Scattering Conference (ELS-XIX)
 will be held at the ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia, from 13 - 17 July 2020. 

Light interaction in electromagnetic (EM) modes of macroscopic particles [1] is based on Maxwell equations, but applications to nanoparticles (NPs) will require consideration of the Planck law of quantum mechanics that denies atoms in nanostructures the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature. Simple QED is a nanoscale heat transfer process (nothing to do with Feyn-
man's QED) similar to inelastic Raman scattering that changes the frequency of absorbed light, but differs in that absorption and emission occur in size dependent EM quantum states of the nanostructure. Since NPs are small compared the wavelength of incident light, simple QED assumes light is absorbed over the NP surface consistent with the high surface surface-to-volume
ratio of NPs. But the Planck law precludes conservation of absorbed light by a temperature increase, and therefore simple QED asserts standing EM radiation is created inside the NP, the absorbed surface heat itself providing the EM confinement to constrain standing EM radiation inside and across the NP diameter. In effect, simple QED conserves EM heat in nanoscale regions by
creating EM radiation - not temperature. Hence, Maxwell simulations of nanoscale regions need to include light emission instead of temperature changes.

A preliminary Abstract is available.


Nanoscale heat transfer of nanoholes (NHs) in solids is presented as the inside-out version of solid nanoparticles (NPs) in air. However, classical light-heat interaction in electromagnetic (EM) modes of NPs and NHs is not valid and requires consideration of the Planck law of quantum mechanics that denies atoms in NHs and NPs the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature. Simple QED is a nanoscale heat transfer process (nothing to do with Feynman's QED) that is based on the Planck law by conserving heat in local nanoscale regions of a structure by the emission of EM radiation instead of temperature. Unlike elastic Mie scattering, simple QED is similar to inelastic Raman scattering that includes changes the emission frequency of absorbed light, but differs in that conservation occurs in size dependent EM quantum states E of the nanostructure. Since both NHs and NPs are presumed small compared the wavelength of incident light, simple QED assumes light is absorbed over NH and NP surfaces. Since the Planck law precludes conservation of absorbed light by a temperature increase, simple QED assumes standing EM radiation is created inside the NH or NP, the absorbed surface heat itself providing the EM confinement to constrain standing EM radiation inside the NH and NP. In effect, simple QED conserves heat from light in nanoscale regions by creating EM radiation - not temperature. Examples are presented to illustrate how heat transfer of inside - out NPs is related to NHs.

A short Paper is available.


Similar to ELS XIX, the LIP paper is based on the simple QED heat transfer process in nanoparticles(NPs) similar to inelastic Raman scattering that changesthe frequency of incident light. Interaction of the light withthe NP surface occurs as the high surface-to-volume ratioof NPs deposits the heat of absorbed light in the NPsurface. But the Planck law precludes temperatureincreases in NPs, and therefore standing EM radiation iscreated inside the NP corresponding to a size dependentquantum state having a half-wavelength equal to thedimension over which the EM waves stand.

A preliminary Paper is available.


CMBR as Oort Cloud Radiation

International Conference on Astrophysics and Particle Physics and Cosmology
July 23-24, 2020 in Berlin, Germany


Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) evolved from early Big Bang models by Gamow. Only later in 1965 did Penzias and Wilson discover the microwave radiation coming from space as black body EM radiation with a temperature of about 10 K. Dicke did not believe that the radiation came from a cold source, and instead proposed the cold temperatures were produced during the Big Bang in the expansion of the Universe. But Penzias and Wilson were most likely measuring microwaves from the Oort Cloud at 10,000 AU naturally cold at 2.7 K instead of the CMBR.

Apparently, the Nobel commitee  unaware of the Oort cloud awarded the 2019 prize in physics to Peebles for interpreting the CMBR as the relic of the Big Bang and integrating dark matter and dark energy into the cosmology. In this paper, the CMBR and local anisotropy is proposed to be blackbody radiation from Oort cloud debris in thermal equilibrium with the Sun suggesting to the Nobel commitee the Big Bang never happened.  The Oort cloud showing the planets in our solar system are depicted below.


Conclusions:

What Penzias and Wilson were measuring in 1965 was blackbody radiation from the Oort cloud that today is known as CMBR given by the black body temperature of ~ 2.7 K at frequency 160 GHz.

Gamow's Big Bang model advanced by Dicke and others concluding the CMBR is the relic of Universe expansion is highly questionable as the CMBR created in the Oort cloud of our Solar system suggests the Big Bang never happened. The Nobel committtee award to Peebles for interpreting the CMBR as the relic of Universe expansion is unfortunate.

Thermal equilibrium of blackbody radiation between the Sun at 5800 K and the Oort cloud at temperature ~ 2.7 K is a far more credible rationale than Universe expansion.

Blackbody theory does not require the Oort cloud to be continuous and opaque to absorb and emit blackbody radiation. Discrete particulate and debris are acceptable black bodies separated by large spaces to allow light of the Universe to reach the Earth.

The CMBR dipole anisotropy caused by the red and blue shift of CMBR photons as the Earth moves in orbit around the Sun produces the dipole anistropy.

The Oort cloud as the source of the CMBR allows microwave emission from discrete debris to be a natural explanation for the observed higher order CMBR anisotropy.

A preliminary Abstract and Paper are available.

Bremen Workshop on Light Scattering 2020

Simple QED Nanoscale Heat Transfer

The absorption in Raman scattering?


Simple QED is a nanoscale heat transfer process similar to inelastic Raman scattering in that upon absorption the changes the frequency of incident light is increased or decreased. The light is absorbed almost totally in the nanostructure surface because of their high surface-to-volume ratios. but the temperature does not increase because the Planck law precludes temperature increases at the nanoscale. Conservation of absorbed heat therefore proceeds by creating standing EM radiation inside the nanostructure defined by a size dependent quantum state having half-wavelength equal to the dimension over which the EM waves stand. Simple QED therefore differs significantly from classical physics.

Classical physics allows the atom to have heat capacity at the nanoscale, the conservation of heat proceeding by a concomitant change in temperature. However, heat trans-fer at the nanoscale is controlled by the Planck law of quantum mechanics differing significantly from classical heat transfer by denying atoms in nanostructures the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature. Over the past decades, nanotechnology has generally ignored the Planck law and continued to use classical physics to explain nanoscale phenomenon, the consequence of which is an uncountable number of meaningless papers in the literature.

Of relevance to Light Scattering 2020 is the similarity of simple QED to Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). Unlike elastic Mie theory, SERS is inelastic as excitation laser light is not only scattered from molecules adsorbed to nanostructure surfaces, but also absorbed in both the molecules and the nanostructure as heat, neither of which by the Planck law increase in temperature. Instead, simple QED converts: (a) the heat in molecules to EM radiation at the frequencies of the molecular quantum states, and (b) the heat in the nanostructures is converted to size dependent quantum states of the nanostructure.  Typically, the size dependent states are in the EUV and excite lower states by fluorescing down to UV levels to excite plasmon resonances in the IR and VIS. 

The simple QED version of Raman scattering is shown below. Laser light illuminates molecules adsorbed on nanoparticles (NP). The molecule directly scatters the laser light (red), but the NP also absorbs some laser light which is converted by simple QED to EM radiation that also excite the molecule (yellow) or is emitted (blue). Hence, the SERS measurement is enhanced including both scattered (red) and simple QED (blue) radiation.  


To illustrate the differences between simple QED and classical heat transfer, the response of a 85 nm spherical iron NP placed in a thermal water bath at 300 K is presented.  The Planck energy E of the single fixed size dependent state is, E = 4.88 eV in the UVC having wavelength 254 nm. At equilibrium, the temperatures of the NP iron atoms is 300 K having thermal enegy U ~ 1 Mev. Since temperature cannot increase, about200,000 UVC photons that are created and emitted into the bath. In biological water, the UVC damages DNA which usually of no consequence as the immune system repairs DNA damage, but if not health issues are at risk, e.g., vaccinations having aluminum NPs that enter the brain through the blood stream may lead to autism.

A preliminary Paper is available. Similarly, a preliminary Presentation and Audio is available. Open both in separate windows and manually adjust the Presentation to the Audio.


ATP synthesis in Myosin Heads

In muscle contraction, mitochondria provide an efficient but limited conversion of glucose to ATP that otherwise proceeds by the inefficient process of glycolysis of pyruvate and fatty acids. Historically, ATP synthesis in mitochondria occurs by hydrolysis from chemiosmotic hydrogen ion gradients across the inner membrane. However, ATP synthesis in mitochondria may far more simply proceed by dehydration reactions powered by exogenous UV produced from the size dependent mitochondrial features, a process that may be extended to each of the many heads on the myosin filament thereby increasing ATP synthesis without the need for pyruvate and fatty acids.

Exogenous UV is a consequence of the Planck law of quantum mechanics that denies atoms in nanoscale myosin heads the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature. In this regard, the simple QED theory of nanoscale heat transfer is based on conserving heat by creating standing EM waves inside the myosin heads. Unlike electronic quantum states, simple QED is based on size dependent quantum states defined by the dimensions of the nanostructure over which the EM waves stand.

By simple QED, the endogenous EUV created inside myosin heads by the photoelectric effect produces the positive charge in electrostatic muscle contraction as depicted in the figure below.

Only the myosin heads charge positive - the myosin and actin filaments carry their natural negative charge. Also, the Z-disk is naturally charged negative, but along with attached actin filaments may be briefly positively charged by neuron action potentials. Muscle contraction occurs as all positive charged myosin heads are attracted to the nearest negative charged Z-disk. Upon contact of the myosin tips with the actin at the Z-disk, the positive charges are neutralized and muscle contraction ceases. Muscle relaxation occurs by Coulomb repulsion of negatively charged myosin and Z-disks.

Myosin heads not only provide an electrostatic basis to muscle contraction, but in muscles supersede mitochondria in ATP synthesis. A preliminary Paper is available.

In summary,

ATP synthesis in the cross-bridge ratchetting mechanism of the sliding-filament model is superseded by UV enhanced ATP hydration synthesis induced by electrostatic muscle contraction from positive charged myosin heads, the charge created by the photoelectric effect from endogenous EUV conserving heat from the thermal surroundings. 

Myosin heads undergo ATP synthesis by UV enhanced dehydration during times of muscle relaxation providing heat to maintain the temperature of the thermal surroundings. But during demands of bodily movement, muscle contraction occurs as  the myosin heads produce EUV radiation that fluoresces down to UV levels and creates positive charge by the photoelectric effect. 

Myosin heads not bound to negative charged actin filaments carry positive charge. But contact by Coulomb attraction neutralizes positive charged myosin heads. Upon loss of contact, myosin heads promptly regain positive charge in < 1 ps.

Heat in the thermal surroundings creates the EUV photons inside the myosin head and produces  photoelectric charging. A single ATP binding to a myosin head releases 0.304 eV, but a EUV photon standing across the length of the myosin head requires 37.6 eV. Heat from the thermal surroundings powers muscle contraction and not ATP binding, although ATP binding contributes to thermal heating.

Like myosin heads, ATP synthesis in mitochondria is produced by endogenous UV instead of hydrolysis by chemiosmosis from a H+ ion gradient through the membrane wall. EUV enhanced ATP synthesis by dehydration in the myosin heads produces ATP directly in the muscle without need for mitochondria.


Planck - Forgotten by Nanotechnology?


Classical physics allows the atom to have heat capacity at the nanoscale, the conservation of heat proceeding by a change in temperature. However, the Planck law of quantum mechanics denies the atom the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature. Over the past decades, nanotechnology has ignored the Planck law and continued to perform nanoscale heat transfer based on classical physics, the consequence of which is an uncountable number of meaningless papers. Perhaps, the following caricature will remind us of the Planck law in;

Nanoscale heat transfer.


The simple QED theory of nanoscale heat transfer theory is based on the Planck law. Heat is conserved by creating standing EM waves inside the nanostructures. Unlike electronic quantum states, simple QED comprises size dependent quantum states depending on the dimensions of the nanostructure over which the EM waves stand.

Simple QED is applied to the heat transfer of a nanoparticle immersed in a liquid bath constant temperature to illustrate the differences. A preliminary Paper is available.

Heat transfer at the nanoscale is controlled by the Planck law of quantum mechanics differing significantly from that of classical physics. Research in nanoscale heat transfer has advanced over the past decades shows a large number of interesting phenomena. But despite the advances in nanotechnology, there are still challenges existing in understanding the mechanism of nanoscale thermal transport. Perhaps, researchers have not appreciated the significant difference between classical physics taught us by Planck with regard to the heat capacity of the atom without which nanoscale heat transfer cannot proceed. 

Absent heat capacity, heat transfer without changes in temperature preclude the Fourier law of heat conduction commonly used in nanoscale heat transfer. Similarly, the Stefan-Boltzmann law for radiative heat transfer depending on temperature is not applicable to nanostructures. Although valid at the macroscale, Fourier and Stefan-Boltzmann equations are invalid at the nanoscale. Since the 1960's, Molecular dynamics based on classical physics thought to provide an understanding of the atomic response to thermal disturbances assume atoms in nanostructures have temperature. Clearly, researchers need both the development of new theory and computational procedures to understand nanoscale heat transfer.



Electrostatic Muscle Contraction


Background of importance began in the 1960's with Mitchell's synthesis of ATP in mitochondria by chemiosmosis driven by the flow of H+ ions across the inner membrane.  In contrast, Sagan et al. proposed ATP synthesis by dehydration reactions under intense UV radiation and showed experimentally UV enhanced ATP synthesis from ADP + P.  
    
But ATP by hydrolysis and not UV dehydration was adopted as the basis for the sliding-filament model of muscle contraction. The contraction between actin and myosin filaments was thought to be a conformation of myosin heads of ADP + P attaching to actin to perform the power stroke. Upon binding with another ATP, the head detaches from actin in recovery by a conformation change, the process repeating like a ratchet during sliding.   
 
In the 1980's, the sliding-filament model of muscle contraction based on ATP hydrolysis was questioned because the chemo-mechanical energy conversion between ATP by hydrolysis and contraction force was never confirmed, i.e., the cross-bridge theory assumes obscure conformational changes convert ATP into the force of muscle contraction. Others proposed mechanisms that avoided conformational  change, but none gained acceptance. Since then, the sliding filament theory based on conformation still pervades muscle contraction, although am electrostatic basis to muscle contraction has gained limited acceptance. The problem is residues in both myosom amd actin filaments carry a negative charge so cannot provide the Coulomb attraction required for muscle contraction suggesting the myosin heads somehow charge positive.

In this regard, the folowing muscle contraction mechansim is proposed.

Muscle contraction triggered by an action potential creates positive charge in myosin heads from endogenous EUV radiation upon absorbing heat from the thermal surroundings. The EUV is the consequence of simple QED based on the Planck law of quantum mechanics that denies atoms in nanoscale myosin heads the heat capacity for conservation to proceed by an increase in temperature. Instead, EM radiation at EUV levels is created standing inside myosin heads that charges the myosin heads positive allowing muscle contraction by Coulomb attraction with the negative charged α-actin at the Z-line. Upon contact, muscle contraction ceases as the positive charged myosin heads are neutralized by the dominant negative charged α-actin. Muscle relaxation occurs as now both negatively charged myosin and actin filaments undergo Coulomb repulsion returning the myosin to the rest position in preparation for the next action potential. The charging process is illustrated below.
 


Preliminary conclusions are:

Muscle contraction in the sliding-filament model by cross-bridges is superseded by electrostatic attraction from positive charged myosin heads, the charge created by endogenous EUV in conserving heat from the thermal surroundings.
 
Myosin heads not bound to negative charged actin filaments always carry positive charge. But contact with myosin or actin filaments neutralizes the positive charged myosin heads. Upon loss of contact, myosin heads regain positive charge in < 1 ps.
 
Heat in the thermal surroundings creates the EUV photons inside the myosin head to allow photoelectric charging. A single ATP binding to a myosin head releases 0.304 eV, but a EUV photon standing across the length of the myosin head requires 37.6 eV. Heat from the thermal surroundings powers muscle contraction and not ATP binding, although ATP binding contributes to thermal heating.
 
Muscle contraction aside, ATP in mitochondria is produced by endogenous UV instead of hydrolysis by chemiosmosis from a H+ ion gradient through the membrane wall. EUV enhanced ATP synthesis by dehydration in the myosin heads produces ATP directly. Mitochondria are not needed to produce ATP in  muscles.  
 
The seminal question in muscle contraction as is: How is chemical energy converted to mechanical work?  The answer is: Convert the chemical energy to heat and then create charge from heat to produce force by electrostatics.

A preliminary Paper is available,


Muscle contraction by Endogenous UV


In the 1960's, the origin of life captivated biological research. Mitchell proposed ATP synthesis in mitochondria followed hydrolysis given by chemiosmosis driven by the flow of H+ ions across the inner membrane. Chemiosmosis occurred by a chain of complex redox reactions with electron transfer from donors to acceptors assisted by enzymes. In contrast, Sagan et al. proposed life on the early Earth began by a dehydration reaction under intense UV radiation and showed experimentally ATP was formed from ADP + P under UV. However, ATP by hydrolysis and not UV dehydration was included in the sliding-filament model of muscle contraction. The contraction between actin and myosin is thought to be a conformation of myosin heads of ADP + P attaching to actin to perform the power stroke. Upon binding with another ATP, the head detaches from actin in recovery by a conformation change, the process repeating like a ratchet during sliding.  
 
In 1971, the cross-bridge mechanism comprising a repetitive ratchet attachment and detachment of the myosin head to actin was adopted as the sliding-filament model of muscle contraction. Estimates of the axial force on the actin were based on the potential energy difference U between the myosin head positions of attachment of a cross-bridge, U = 4 kB T, where kB is Boltzmann's constant and T is absolute temperature. Letting h be the travel the stable positions, the force F = kBT /h that for h = 8 nm gives F = 2 pN and link stiffness k = F/h = 0.25 pN/nm. Since actual muscle fiber pressure p = 3 x 10^5 N/m2, about 1.5 x 10^17 bridges per m2 are therefore required in each half-sarcomere. But the number of bridges in half-sarcomeres observed in micrograph is < 150 - far less than required by cross-bridge theory.  
 
The seminal question in muscle contraction is: How is chemical energy converted to mechanical work?  
 
Muscle contraction is proposed to be the consequence of converting heat from the surroundings into the mechanical work of contracting actin filaments by electrostatic forces induced by charge in the myosin heads, the charge created by the photoelectric effect from endogenous EUV radiation produced in myosin heads by simple QED radiation. The myosin  head in the sliding-filament model adapted for endogenous EUV in muscle contraction is shown below.   
    

The myosin heads are depicted locally absorbing heat Q. The heat is inherent in the thermal surroundings from all sources, not necessarily ATP. On a relative basis, a single ATP heat released in binding to the myosin head is a small fraction of the heat contributing to the temperature of thermal surroundings.  
 
The myosin heads are treated as 20 nm spherical nanoparticles (NPs) comprised of atoms absent heat capacity by the Planck law.  The NPs cannot conserve heat Q by an increase in temperature and instead emit spherical EUV radiation that fluoresces down to UV levels.  The EUV is used in a dehydration reaction with available ADP and P to produce ATP. However, the EUV also removes electrons from the myosin heads by the photoelectric effect to create a positive charge.
 
With both myosin and actin initially charged negative, the positive charged area near the myosin tips undergoes Coulomb attraction to the negative charged α-actin ends at the Z-line.  Upon contact of the myosin tips with the actin at the Z-line, the positive charges are neutralized and muscle contraction ceases. Muscle relaxation occurs by Coulomb repulsion of negatively charged myosin and α-actin. Taking the electrostatic force F = 2 pN, the positive charge q ~100 electron charges or 100 singly charged myosin heads. Assuming each myosin head produces 1 EUV photon that fluoresces down to 1 UVC photon, 1 electron is emitted leaving the head with a single positive q charge. Since about 150 myosin heads are available in a half-sarcomere, 100 heads produced the 2 pN contraction force.
 
But is the single EUV photon created by thermal metabolic heat or ATP binding?  
 
Consider the heat Q from the thermal surroundings to create the EUV photon and ignore the heat from ATP binding. The change in surface temperature under the absorption of the Planck energy E of a EUV photon pulse given from the surrounding muscle and blood is shown below. 


The change in the temperature of the surroundings is about 20 K and takes < 1 ps which may be considered instantaneous. What this means is EUV creation in the myosin heads occurs at the instant the  heads  lose contact with actin. Moreover, the EUV does not depend on the release of heat upon ATP binding. The single EUV photon is created from the thermal surroundings alone. This is necessary as a single ATP binding to the myosin head only releases 0.304 eV - far less than the 10.35 eV required to create the EUV photon.

Moreover, the < 150 myosin heads on the half-sarcomere are more than sufficient to produce muscle contraction. Muscle contraction is proposed to occur by electrostatic charge from endogenous EUV radiation created from the heat absorbed in myosin heads. The EUV is the consequence of the Planck law of quantum mechanics that denies head atoms the heat capacity for conservation to proceed by an increase in temperature. With both myosin and actin naturally carrying negative charge, the EUV charges the myosin heads positive allowing Coulomb attraction with the nearby axially disposed negative charged α-actin at the Z-line. Muscle attraction occurs for < 15 ms until the myosin tip contacts the α-actin, at which time the charge is neutralized and muscle contraction ceases. Muscle relaxation occurs as now both negatively charged myosin and actin undergo Coulomb repulsion.  A preliminary Paper is available.   
 
In conclusion,

Muscle contraction is proposed to occur by electrostatic charge from endogenous EUV radiation created from the heat absorbed in myosin heads. The EUV is the consequence of the Planck law of quantum mechanics that denies head atoms the heat capacity for conservation to proceed by an increase in temperature. With both myosin and actin naturally carrying negative charge, the EUV charges the myosin heads positive allowing Coulomb attraction with the nearby axially disposed negative charged α-actin at the Z-line. Muscle attraction occurs for < 15 ms until the myosin tip contacts the α-actin, at which time the charge is neutralized and muscle contraction ceases. Muscle relaxation occurs as now both negatively charged myosin and actin undergo Coulomb repulsion.    
   
Muscle contraction in the sliding-filament model by cross-bridges is superseded by electrostatic attraction from positive charged myosin heads near the negative α-actin Z-line, the charge created from endogenous EUV by conserving heat from the thermal surroundings.   
 
ATP In mitochondria extended to muscle contraction is produced by endogenous UV instead of hydrolysis by chemiosmosis from a H+ ion gradient through the membrane wall. During resting conditons, the EUV within the myosin heads is available to produce ATP from ADP + P  upon binding to the myosin head surface.

Heat in the thermal surroundings creates the EUV photons inside the myosin head to allow photoelectric charging. A single ATP binding to a myosin head releases 0.304 eV, but a UVC and EUV photon require 4.88 and 10.35 eV. Heat from the thermal surroundings powers muscle contraction and not ATP binding.


E-cigarettes and cancer?


Electronic e-cigarettes are common throughout the world. E-cigarettes deliver the nicotine stimulant through aerosols to the lungs without burning tobacco. Recently, e-cigarette smokers have mysteriously expressed nicotine poisoning symptoms including nausea and vomiting, excessive salivation, headache, and dizziness followed later by a period of central nervous system depression, paralysis, difficulty in breathing and even death.

Unlike the immediacy of nicotine poisoning, the potential of cancer developing decades later from e-cigarettes was assessed with DNA tests that showed nicotine enhanced the UV-induced DNA mutation frequency in both human lung and bladder epithelial cells by two- to fourfold.

Unlike tobacco smoke, e-cigarette aerosols are thought to contain nicotine and relatively harmless organic solvents, and therefore e-cigarettes are considered non-carcinogenic and a safer substitute for tobacco. But this is questionable as the e-cigarette aersol contains nanoparticles (NPs).  Although NPs are not the major component in the aerosol, NPs are the most important. NPs by emitting UV radiation excite nicotine to high electronic states to enhance mutagenic DNA and inhibit DNA repair in human lung and bladder epithelial cells, all of which are unlikely for nicotine in the ground state.

NPs make e-cigarette smoking far more serious in future cancers than normal cigarettes. E-cigarettes produce NPs from the metal heater. For Blu Classic Tobacco - 5 second puff - Flow rate 15 ml/s - Liquid dilution 1/30, the concentration of NPs depends on 'puff time' and 'particle size' as shown below. The concentration of UVC radiation is shown by the yelllow line.


Once the NPs are free in the aerosol, simple QED predicts heating induces the NPs depending on NP size to emit EM radiation in the EUV-UVC-UV-VIS-IR.  NPs > 100 nm producing VIS and IR are harmless. Irrespective of the NP metal, the average EM radiation of 50-70 nm NPs is in the UV coinciding with the UVC absorption peak of nicotine and DNA spectra. EUV produced in < 50 nm NPs produce UVC by fluorescence, but may be neglected because of the low conversion efficiency.

Enhanced DNA damage is consistent with simple QED that predicts NPs produced from the metal heater in the e-cigarette emit UV radiation known to cause DNA mutations. Simple QED is the consequence of the Planck law that denies atoms in NPs the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature, and therefore conservation proceeds by the NP creating size-dependent standing EM radiation within and across the NP diameter. Of concern, 50-100 nm NPs emit in the UV. The EM confinement for the surface heat to be converted into standing UV is the high surface-to-volume ratios of NPs that requires the absorbed heat to be deposited in the NP surface, the EM energy of the surface heat itself providing the brief, but necessary EM confinement. Once the surface heat is expended in creating the standing UV radiation the EM confinement vanishes, and the UV radiation is free to raise the nicotine to an excited state and/or damage DNA. See preliminary Paper.  A revised PaperR is available.

The mystery of nicotine poisoning is solved by removing the heater, but then the nicotine would remain in the ground state and not stimulate the smoker's senses. Perhaps, smoking conventional cigarettes is safer than e-cigarettes?