Quotations


Thought for Us


Imagination takes you everywhere


A. Einstein


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Bright White Light from Graphene


The history of near-field heat transfer in nanoscale gaps between macroscopic bodies is based on the Fluctuation Dissipation Theorem (FDT) that requires heat upon absorption of EM radiation to produces temperature fluctuations which means temperature fluctuations can produce EM radiation. But under EM confinement, the Planck law precludes temperature fluctuations in nanoscale gaps which heat may be conserved by creating EM radiation.  However, all known near-field heat transfer theories are based on the difference of surface temperatures of nanoscale gaps. In effect, the Planck law requires theories of near-field heat transfer that do not depend on temperature. 

One such theory is simple QED that was formulated based on the Planck law and conserves heat by creating temperature independent EM standing waves across the nanoscale gap. Current near-field theories are discussed in relation to simple QED with applications relevant to graphene including: hyperbolic plasmons, super-Planckian radiation, and bright VIS light. 

The application of bright VIS emission is notable in that under electrical fields, current near-field theory claims 2000 K temperatures are produced in a graphene layer over a nanoscale trench, but bright white light requires 5000 K temperatures illustrated in the figure below..
 

Jn contrast, simple QED claims the graphene remains at ambient temperature, and instead soft X-rays are produced across the graphene thickness, the heat of which excites overtones of standing EM waves in the trench to produce bright white light. Current near-field theories are shown invalid by the Planck law while experimental data is explained by temperature independent standing EM waves consistent with simple QED.

Conclusions

The FDT assumes that because EM radiation produces heat with temperature fluctuations then temperature fluctuations can produce EM radiation. 

But the Planck law precludes heat from EM radiation creating temperature fluctuations in nanoscale gaps which means the FDT is not applicable and heat may only create EM radiation at the nanoscale.

All known near-field heat transfer theories assume temperature fluctuations in gaps and implicitly require temperature differences between gap surfaces are invalid by the Planck law.

Only temperature independent near-field theories are valid at the nanoscale, one proposal of which is simple QED based on the Planck law itself.

Hyperbolic phonons and evanescent waves valid on the surface of macroscopic bodies do not exist in the surfaces of nanoscale gaps.

Electric field induced 2000 K temperatures do not exist in suspended single atom graphene layers. Instead, Joule heat is conserved by creating soft X-rays across the layer thickness, the heat of which is then conserved by creating the fundamental of EM waves standing between the graphene layer and the bottom of the trench. The white light is a mix of the higher VIS overtones of the fundamental EM standing wave

A preliminary Paper is available 


Graphene:  High Thermal Conductivity at the Nanoscale?


Over the last decade, the high thermal conductivity of graphene flakes and carbon nanotube (CNTs) at the nanoscale has received much attention in the heat dissipation of microelectronic devices. But Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Finite Element Models (FEM) analysis in support of high thermal conductivity based on classical physics are no longer valid at the nanoscale because the atoms in nanostructures are assumed to have temperature, when in fact the Planck law denies atoms at the nanoscale the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature.

 Indeed, phonons dependent on temperature implicit in MD and FEM analysis do not even exist at the nanoscale.

 In this regard, the simple QED method of nanoscale heat transfer based on the Planck law conserves heat by the emission of EM radiation instead of increases in temperature.  Under steady laser heating at the center of a graphene flake, the in-plane thermal conductivity assumed proportional to the laser heat is highly overstated as soft X-ray emission normal to flake is not included as a significant heat loss. Similarly, most heat in CNTs is dissipated across the diameter making thermal conductivity based on heat transfer along the length also highly overstated. 

In contrast, the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires (NWs) is not measured by assuming heat only flows along the NW length, but rather simply measures the temperature difference across the wire length, the consequence of which is the thermal conductivity of silicon at the nanoscale is not higher than bulk, but rather at least 100X lower than bulk consistent with simple QED. 

Conclusions

The Planck law denies atoms in graphene layers the heat capacity to conserve heat across the thickness by an increase in temperature.  Phonons depending on temperature do exist along the length of a few microns, but not through the < 1 nm graphene layer.    

Simple QED based on the Planck law conserves heat Q across graphene layers by the emission of EM radiation at ~ 280 eV soft X-ray levels. 

Assuming laser heat is conducted in-plane to the heat sinks is false as virtually all heat is loss by soft X-rays before ever reaching the sinks. MD and FEM programs ANSYS and ABAQUS based on classical physics are not valid at the nanoscale.

High thermal conductivity of graphene at the nanoscale does not exist as assuming all laser heat flows in-plane through the layer to heat sinks is invalid. In fact, the ETC of graphene layers vanishes in the same way as for silicon NWs.

The 100X lower thermal conductivity of silicon NWs at the nanoscale compared to bulk is determined experimentally by measuring the temperature difference across the wire length. Graphene experiments should do the same.

A preliminary Paper is available.


Simple QED: The Absorption in Raman Scattering?


Simple QED is a nanoscale heat transfer process in nanoparticles (NPs) that conserves absorbed heat with the emission of EM radiation. Incident light having a wavelength greater than the NP diameter imparts an inwardly disposed spherical Poynting vector of momentum that heats the NP surface. Sub-surface penetration of surface heat requires thermal conduction in the NP, but cannot proceed as the Planck law precludes the NP conserving heat by an increase in temperature. Instead, the NP surface heat acts the EM confinement to conserve the heat by creating non-thermal standing EM radiation inside the NP having a half-wavelength equal to the NP diameter. Once the momentum of the accumulated EM radiation exceeds the momentum of the incident light, the NP emits the standing EM radiation to the surroundings at a frequency depending on the NP diameter, a process similar to absorption in Raman scattering.   

Conclusion

 Simple QED heat transfer in NPs is similar to inelastic Raman scattering with absorption allowing the emission frequency to increase or decrease depending on size de-pendent quantum states of the NP. 

A preliminary Abstract and Mp4 video Presentation  are available.


Simple QED in Magnetic Recording


Spin-valves comprising alternating nanoscale layers of ferromagnets (FMs) separated by mon-magnetic (NM) spacers are generally thought to produce parallel electron-spins that lower the giant magneto-resistance (GMR) of the disordered state, the change in resistance allowing data storage in magnetic recording. 

The picture above shows the GMR of spins in adjacent FMs to be naturally anti-parallel with high electrical resistance. But applying a magnetic field causes an abrupt lowering of the GMR. But is a magnetic field necessary?    

Almost a decade ago, the author showed lowering of the GMR was not caused by spin, but rather by EM radiation induced by conserving Joule heat from the electrical current writing and reading in the recording, the EM radiation at UV levels by photoelectric charging the FM and significantly lowering the GMR. 

Since then, the theory of simple QED induced heat transfer at the nanoscale has been advanced to prompt the instant updated version of spin consistent with other simple QED applications.  Having mothing to do with Feynman's QED, simple QED is based on the Planck law that denies the atoms in FMs under nanoscale EM confinement the heat capacity to conserve Joule heat by an increase in temperature, and instead the heat is conserved by creating non-thermal EM waves standing across the FM layer. 

The EM radiation has sufficient Planck energy to ionize FM layers and create excitons (holon and electron pairs) that act as charge carriers to significantly lower the GMR by the dramatic decrease in the resistance of the FM layers even approaching super-conductivity at ambient temperature. 

Conclusions:

The Planck law denies atoms in FM layers the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature.  Phonons depending on temperature do not exist in in FMs which means heat transfer occurs by simple QED induced EM radiation.

Simple QED based on the Planck law conserves heat in the FM layer by the prompt creation of standing EM radiation beyond the UV that promptly ionizes the FM to form holons that lower the GMR. 

FMs that demagnetize on a sub- picosecond time scale (< 350 fs) is consistent with simple QED induced heat transfer at the nanoscale. 

Simple QED requires brief EM confinement of the heat to produce non-thermal EM waves standing across the FM layer. TIR was used in the early paper, but EM confinement of the standing EM waves is updated here to the inward impulsive momentum of thermal kT radiation from external regions to the FM layer having temperature.  

The simulations of simple QED induced switching from writing to reading for the 100 nm layer showed 90% GMR lowering compared to the 22% in the experiment. But simple QED assumed 100% conversion of Power to excitons. Since there are many FM layers stacked on top of each other, 100% conversion of heat to excitons may be justified.

A preliminary Paper is available. 


Phonons leap across nanoscale gaps ?


Physics Today report of heat transfer across nanoscale gaps based on phonons mediated by the Casimir effect or quantum fluctuations of electromagnetic fields are assessed in relation to the simple QED theory of nanoscale heat transfer. Simple QED based on the Planck law denies atoms in nano structures and gap surfaces the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature with conservation proceeding by the creation of non-thermal EM waves standing across the gap. 

Only a single simple QED photon is necessary to explain the experiment, and therefore phonon heat transfer mediated by the Casimir effect is relatively insignificant. Further, the thermal kT energy of atoms in gap surfaces vanishes under EM confinement which means phonons that depend on temperature do not exist in the nanogap surfaces to transfer heat by leaping across the vacuum gap. 

Even the Casimir force in the phonon heat transfer theory is questionable. Over a decade ago, the Casimir effect was shown to have nothing to do with quantum fluctuations, but rather caused by photoelectric charging of the plates by simple QED induced EM waves standing across submicron gaps.

See preliminary Paper


The Nanoparticle Treatment and Vaccinations


Traditionally, vaccine development requires years of development and testing, but with the Covid-19 pandemic a rapid response is required as attendant lockdowns and quarantines cause social unrest and potential World economic collapse. However, the CDC did not have a plan in place for a rapid treatment of the Covid-19 or any other unknown viral pandemic because of the focus on preventive vaccines. Nevertheless, Pfizer/BionTech and Moderna rapidly coded the mRNA for the Covid-19 spike protein not only in a short time, but the vaccines also showed 95% efficacy. Since viral vaccines only have efficacies of about 50%, the reason for the high mRNA efficacy was linked to the nanoparticle (NP) carriers not expressed in other vaccines. Early on, encapsulating the mRNA in fatty lipid NPs was found to resolve the  breaking apart of the mRNA molecule upon entering the cell. Moderna and others were reported to have used ~ 80 nm NPs, but encapsulated mRNA in NPs created another problem. 

The simple QED theory of nanoscale heat transfer predicted the  ~ 80 nm NPs produce low levels of ultraviolet (UVC) radiation upon conserving body heat that alters the mRNA before ever reaching the cell. Indeed, UVC is known to induce non-coding RNA that opposes the encoded protein, and therefore the coded Covid-19 spike protein cannot the reason for the high efficacy of the mRNA vaccines. Rather, the 95% efficacy reported for mRNA vaccines is more likely caused by the NP induced UVC modifying the spike protein coding to a lower level coding similar to that of the ancestor of the spike protein that evolved under the intense UVC that existed on the early Earth. 

In mid-2020, the author proposed the NP treatment to BARDA based on the UVC from injections of ~ 80 nm NPs in saline, but only for patients tested positive for Covid-19 thereby avoiding the vaccination of the entire World population. Moreover, the UVC in the NP treatment only needs to inactivate a few of the viruses in the patient to produce the antigens necessary to elicit the immunity to inactivate the remaining viruses in the patient as well as any future Covid-19 infections. Clearly, the NP treatment based on NPs alone is inexpensive compared to mRNA vaccines and the difficulties of cold storage are avoided. Later, the delivery by NP injection is expected to be replaced by NP inhalers. 

In contrast, the AstraZeneca vaccine is not based on mRNA in lipid NPs, but rather on the larger ~100 nm adenovirus NPs that carry a genetically engineered spike protein in cell cultures into the cells, although at a lower efficacy of 70% because the larger adenovirus NP emits UVB instead of UVC. 

In this paper, the simple QED theory based on the Planck law is used to support UVB and UVC radiation from NPs in Covid-19 vaccines, the NP atoms of which lack the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature, and instead convert body heat into UVB and UVC. 

However, both UVB and UVC may cause collateral DNA damage in the brain leading to the neurological symptoms of Covid-19 now being observed probably because the NP dosage is too high. By controlling the NP dose; however, the UV can be held to low levels allowing recovery of DNA damage over time by natural DNA repair systems. Although the NP treatment was proposed for Covid-19 about a year ago, the problem with the vaccination paradigm in lacking a prompt response to future viral infection pandemics has not gone away. The NP treatment, or the like, offers a simple, inexpensive, and direct method of producing UV radiation to elicit immunity for all known and yet unknown viruses. 

The CDC is recommended to begin a test program on the NP treatment to establish the minimum NP dosage that elicits Covid-19 immunity, but also reduces the UVB and UVC induced neurological symptoms observed today, e. g., allergic reactions, loss of smell, headaches, Bell's palsy, etc. including pulmonary symptoms of UVB induced bleeding from toes, etc. 



Nanowire Thermal Conductivity


The thermal conductivity of nanowires (NWs) over the last decade has received much attention in heat dissipation of 1-dimensinal nanoscale devices. Analysis methods including Molecular Dynamics (MD) based on phonons are typically used in NW heat transfer. But the NW diameters are submicron and preclude classical MD simulations that assume the atoms have temperature when in fact the Planck law denies atoms in nanoscale structures the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature.
 Indeed, phonons do not even exist at the nanoscale, but photons do, as illustrated by EM emission of light from a NW in the above figure. 

In contrast, the simple QED method of nanoscale heat transfer based on the Planck law conserves heat in NWs by the emission of EM radiation instead of increases in temperature.  Under steady heat flow, EM waves as non-thermal photons stand across the NW diameter and length that partition the heat in term of dissipation time or inverse of standing wave frequencies.  In this paper, the simple QED heat transfer response of silicon NWs is compared with experiment and phonon-based derivations of thermal conductivity of NWs at ambient temperatures from 1 to 300 °K.

Conclusions

The Planck law denies atoms in silicon NWs the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature.  Phonons depending on temperature do not exist in NWs. Non-Fourier nanoscale heat transfer models of NWs based on phonons are highly questionable.    

Simple QED based on the Planck law conserves heat by the emission of EM radiation. At temperatures < 300 °K, photons instead of phonons carry the heat at the nanoscale consistent with ballistic models

NWs generally thought to reduce heat flow along the wire length are the consequence of most Joule heat being emitted from the wire cross-section as EM radiation into the surroundings. Only a small fraction of Joule heat is loss along the wire length.

ETC has nothing to do with the thermo-physical properties of silicon, the bulk and NW silicon properties are the same.

Simple QED applied to < 100 nm NWs shows Planck energies from the UV to the EUV are produced during Joule heat and can be confirmed at the UV level by common UV-VIS spectroscopy.

The significant difference between the shape of ETC curves predicted by simple QED and experiment suggests the experiment should be repeated. Phonon models depending on temperature are not applicable to NWs at temperatures < 300 °K.  Only simple QED or other temperature independent ETC models are plausible.

A preliminary Paper is available..


Light from Heat


The Carnot efficiency of a heat engine operating between hot and cold reservoirs implicitly assumes some heat to always be loss to the surroundings thereby precluding converting heat directly into work. Over 200 years, the Carnot limit based on classical physics implies 100% efficiency is only possible if all thermal energy is removed which can only occur if the cold reservoir is at absolute zero.

Although valid for the common heat engine, the Carnot limit of classical physics is not applicable to microscopic heat engines governed by the Planck law of quantum mechanics which denies the atom under high EM confinement the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature, i.e., a 100% Carnot efficiency is possible, but does not depend on temperature of the cold reservoir. Indeed, heat transfer at the nanoscale by simple QED theory conserves heat by the emission of EM radiation instead of a temperature change.  By simple QED, microscopic heat engines remove all thermal energy and directly convert heat to work at 100% Carnot efficiency by emitting EM radiation in the form of non-thermal photons. 

Application of simple QED shows converting heat from the ambient 20 °C temperature environment in a 2 cm square silicon surface decorated with a pattern of laser induced 140 nm bottom truncated spherical nanoparticles can produce 50 W light bulbs emitting green light at 580 nm powered only by natural convection. 

Conclusions:

The classical Carnot heat engine cannot be 100% efficient as some heat is always loss to the surroundings. 100% conversion of heat QH from the hot reservoir at temperature TH to work W requires a cold reservoir temperature TC of absolute zero.

Microscopic Carnot engines governed by the Planck law avoid the absolute zero requirement of classical physics to allow 100% efficiency by denying the atom under high EM confinement the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature. Instead, heat is conserved by directly producing work in the emission of EM radiation or photons.

Laser enhanced decoration of 130-140 nm bottom truncated silicon NPs on small 2 cm square silicon films are shown by simple QED to support the fabrication of small 50 W surfaces emitting 580 nm green-light powered only by natural convection from air at 20 °C 

The classical notion that in order to turn heat into red-light a metal needs to be heated to approximately 2000 °K is superseded by simple QED under natural convection in air at 20 °C

The enhanced efficiency of heating the LEDs to 135 °C is caused by the simple QED conversion of heat to work in the form of photons without a need for a cold TC reservoir that does indeed satisfy the second law. 
Laser-induced heating of submicron films of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 separated by pure SiO2 spacers found to increase the radiative emission cannot depend on temperature dependent phonon production as the Planck law denies the existence of temperature at the nanoscale.

A preliminary Paper is available.


CMB Radiation is NOT a Relic of the Big Bang

 
The CMB evolved from Big Bang models by Gamow. Only in 1965 did Penzias and Wilson discover the microwave radiation coming from space. Dicke and others concluded the microwave radiation was a relic of the Big Bang. Today, the CMB temperature is 2.725 ± 0.00057 K. However, the CMB may have nothing to do with the Big Bang and only be microwave emission from debris in the Oort Cloud of our solar system. 

Unlike the disk-like Planetary System in the ecliptic of the Sun, the Oort cloud is spherical allowing the emission of EM radiation observed by Penzias and Wilson to be uniform in all directions. At 10,000 AU, the Oort cloud at 2.725 K varies by ±0.00057 K spread over about 12 AU. Because the Planck law denies atoms at a given temperature below a certain EM confinement wavelength λ the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature, a debris temperature of 2.725 K is only possible for solar radiation having wavelengths λ> 20,000 microns where atoms have classical and finite heat capacity. 

What this means is for λ < 20,000 microns, solar heat is not conserved by a change in temperature, but by creating EM waves standing across debris diameters d  > λ /2n, where n is the refractive index of the debris. Taking n = 1.5, the minimum debris diameter d is 7 m that means small  to the 8 billion larger asteroids > 5 km reported in the Oort cloud are emitting discrete CMB radiation that appears spotted on WMAP and Planck surveys. Since the CMB of the Big Bang would be uniform and not spotted, the CMB is NOT a relic of the Big Bang 

A preliminary Abstract and Mp.4 video is available. 


Covid-19: Efficacy of nanoparticles and mRNA vaccines 


The CDC approach to the Covid-19 virus was traditional: quickly develop a vaccine that usually takes years, but even if successful in the near term is impossible to implement for the entire World population, let alone unacceptable because of attendant social unrest and economic collapse. On this basis alone, the traditional approach for Covid-19 is not likely to be successful. 

Moreover, vaccines typically contain fragments of inactivated viruses. In this regard, the current Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines differ in that the inactivated virus is not used, but rather the patient receives an injection of genetic material –mRNA– that encodes the spike protein of Covid-19 virus as the antigen to elicit Covid-19 immunity, the process taking place inside the patient's body. 

Since the mRNA molecule is fragile and disintegrates upon entering the cell, the mRNA is dispersed inside ~ 80 nm fatty lipid nanoparticles (NPs). Unfortunately, the NPs naturally emit UVC radiation that inactivates mRNA which makes the concept of mRNA vaccines unworkable. Even so, the mRNA vaccines by Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna are reported to have a 94.5% efficacy clearly suggesting a mechanism other than mRNA is inactivating the Covid-19.

 In this regard, the Covid-19 NP Treatment based on NPs inducing UVC was proposed in mid-2020 as the mechanism to avoid obvious logistical problems in the World-wide delivery of cold storage requirements of Covid-19 vaccines.  In the Covid-19 NP Treatment, the UVC need only inactivate a few of the live Covid-19 virus in the patient that then act as the antigen to elicit Covid-19 immunity. But UVC also damages DNA of neurons in the brain. Low NP doses reduce UVC levels to allow correction of DNA damage by repair systems. 

But if NP doses are too high, DNA repair systems are overwhelmed and neurological symptoms appear like reported Bell's palsy and allergic reactions. The CDC is requested remove the un-necessary mRNA from vaccines and use the NP Treatment at reduced NP doses. The World population need not be treated, rather only if the patient is tested positive for Covid-19. 

 Summary argument:

Since influenza vaccines based on inactivated virus have only 50% efficacy, and since Moderna's Covid-19 mRNA vaccine is the genetic equivalent of an inactivated Covid-19 spike, the efficacy of the Covid-19 mRNA vaccine should be near 50% - not over 90%.

Hence,

 The mRNA concept  with ~ 80 nm lipid NP carriers emitting UVC is unworkable. But the NP Treatment using NP > 100 nm would emit IR which would not inactivate the mRNA to make the mRNA concept viable, but would reduce the Covid-19 efficacy near 50%

 The Abstract of 'Nanoparticles and mRNA Covid-19 efficacy",  Paper , and mp4 Video are available.



Classical physics allows the atom to have heat capacity at the nanoscale, the conservation of heat proceeding by a change in temperature. However, simple QED based on the Planck law of quantum mechanics denies the atom in nanostructures the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature, the consequence of which is heat is conserved by creating standing EM radiation that is released to the surroundings. 

UVC radiation is known to disinfect Coronavirus in the air or on surrounding surfaces, but not inside body organs.

 In this regard, Covid-19 patients diagnosed positive for having the virus in their body are proposed disinfected by a single injection of ~80 nm lipid nanoparticles (NPs) selected to emit UVC radiation. Powered only by body heat, the NPs inactivate at least a few viruses to create the antigens necessary to elicit immunity that removes the remaining virus in the body.

 In effect, the UVC Treatment is an 'in vivo' vaccine. In the blood stream, the NPs may enter the brain and damage neurons and DNA, but with brief UVC Treatments the risk of brain damage is expected to be minimal. CDC testing to determine acceptable NP doses is required to avoid neurological problems in Covid-19 patirnts.

A preliminary Paper and 10 minute MP4 Video are available.