Quotations


Thought for Us


A man should look for what is, and not for what he thinks should be.


A. Einstein

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Since the discovery of ATP synthesis in mitochondria by oxidative phosphorylation across the inner membrane, oxidative stress has been considered the errant consequence of aerobic metabolism based on chemiosmosis comprising a chain of complex redox reactions with electron transfer from donors to acceptors assisted by enzymes. But consistent with mitochondria evolving on the early Earth under intense solar UV radiation, ATP synthesis was more likely to have evolved by UV enhanced dehydration reactions of ADP and phosphate instead of redox reactions by hydrolysis. Over time, mitochondria evolved nanoscale spaces between cristae equal to the half-wavelengths of the absorbed solar UV radiation. But once ozone formed in the atmosphere, solar UV was reduced and survival required mitochondria to evolve their own endogenous UV source. How this happened is proposed explained by simple QED.

Simple QED is a method of nanoscale heat transfer based on the Planck law that precludes atoms in mitochondria the heat capacity to conserve ATP heat by an increase in temperature. Instead, simple QED conserves ATP heat by creating UV radiation in the spaces between cristae. In mitochondria, simple QED converts ATP heat into Planck energy E = hc/2nd, where h is Planck's constant, c is the speed of light while n and d are the refractive index and spacing between cristae. With regard to ATP synthesis, simple QED was shown on this 2019 website to produce EM radiation near the UVC.  A preliminary Abstract is available.

In summary,

Not only does endogenous UV in mitochondria produce the ATP necessary for survival, but has the unavoidable downside of damaging DNA and by exciting oxygen produced ROS - superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals.

Oxidative stress is not the errant production of ROS from electrons with oxygen in the chain of redox reactions of hydrolysis.

Hydrogen peroxide in Redox homeostasis is not magically created, but rather requires EM energy > 5eV from endogenous UV.

Survival required the mitochondria evolve antioxidants and enzymes as protective UV absorbers and DNA repair systems. Antioxidants include carotenoids and EGCG while enzymes comprised catalases and peroxidases.

Solar UV and DNA mutagenesis on the early Earth explains the similarity and differences in Darwin's species thereby favoring ATP synthesis by UV enhanced dehydration over chemiosmosis.

Finally, mitochondrial survival on Earth has always been a balance between competing effects of UV radiation.


Global Cooling by Injecting Black Carbon

into the Stratosphere?


Global cooling by injecting black carbon (BC) aerosols into the stratosphere is currently not considered a viable geoengineering solution to compensate for global warming. However, geoengineering analysis methods assume the BC particles upon absorbing solar radiation follow classical physics and increase in temperature. But for sub-micron nanoparticles (NPs) the Planck law denies atoms in BC particles the heat capacity to increase in temperature in absorbing solar radiation, the consequence of which allows BC to be effective in compensating for global warming. In thus paper, classical physics is superseded by simple QED - a nanoscale heat transfer process based on the Planck law - is used to show the advantages of radiative forcing by BC absorption compared to reflective aerosols. The analysis uses the simple QED heat transfer process based on the Planck law that conserves heat by creating standing EM radiation inside the BC particle having wavelength 2nd, where n and d are the refractive index and diameter of the spherical BC particle. For BC having n = 2.4, the desired 10-micron wavelength for emission through the 8-12 microns atmospheric window requires d ~ 2 microns. The BC particles injected at the top of the stratosphere having high absorb all incident UV-VIS-NIR solar radiation. For a 1% absorption of solar radiation in the stratosphere or negative radiative forcing of -1.6 W/m2 at the Earth's surface, 3.4 million tons of BC are required at a cost from $ 1-2 trillion. Alternative geoengineering using Earth based BC mirrors is discussed.


The injection of BC aerosols into the stratosphere to absorb solar radiation and provide obtain            -1.6 W/m2 radiative forcing avoids the problem that reflective of solar radiation also includes an absorptive fraction that increases stratosphere temperature. Regardless of whether absorptive or reflective forcing surpass each other, the problem is the practicality of injecting 3 million ton of BC or sulfur aerosols in the stratosphere. 

A more practical BC global cooling alternative is suggested.

One alternative to injecting BC particles into the stratosphere is placing a number of space mirrors in orbit to reflect solar radiation back into space. Proposed in 2006, the mirrors having an area of a square kilometer made of thin plastic reflective films to illuminate photovoltaic devices producing electricity. Space mirrors are considered difficult to implment.

Another alternative is to extend the concept of the injection of 2-micron BC particle aerosols into the stratosphere by providing a large number of flat 100 m square BC mirrors on the Earth surface. Although avoiding the difficulty of injecting BC particles into the stratosphere, geoengineering of many Earth based BC mirrors is still formidable. The BC mirrors are flat having a 2-micron BC layer on a silicon substrate, the BC layer facing the sun and the back-silicon surface facing the Earth surface as shown below.


Similar to BC particles, the BC mirrors have thickness of 2 microns, consistent with the same simple QED emission wavelength 2nd ~ 10 microns. Hence, simple QED converts the heat from the absorption of all UV-VIS-NIR solar radiation at the Earth's surface to 10-micron radiation that escapes the Earth through the 8-12 microns atmospheric window.

A formidable 123 million BC mirrors are required spread over the Earth's surface. Each mirror is square with 100 m on a side comprised of 1 square meter panels, each panel consisting of a 2-micron BC front surface supported on substrate transparent to 10-micron radiation, e.g., silicon. The Earth based BC mirrors offer advantages over injecting 2-micron spherical BC particles into the stratosphere as health problems and the cost of continual BC particle injection into the stratosphere are avoided. Moreover, Earth based BC mirrors are more feasible than inflatable reflective mirrors deployed in space and would be more attractive if IR photovoltaic devices are developed to utilize the 10-micron emission from the silicon substrate.
  
Geoengineering with BC mirrors is still prohibitively expensive, but may eventually be necessary for the survival of the human species. Since removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is a decades long solution, the recommendation here follows that of others: In the near-term BC emissions be immediately reduced while Earth-based BC mirror or other concepts are developed.

A  preliminary Paper is available.


The International Summit on Nanomecine is to be held on April 13 and 14 in Prague.

Progress of NanoMedicine over the past decades has been remarkable, and many interesting applications in nanodrug delivery have been reported. But despite advances, there are still challenges in understanding the interaction of nanodrugs and carriers with DNA during delivery.

Indeed, the question has been raised of whether the nanoscopic drug carrier may damage DNA to offset advantages of the drug, e.g., adjuvants in vaccines to activate the immune system comprise submicron (< 100 nm) NPs of aluminum that cross the blood-brain-barrier and by remaining in the brain for an extended time to damage DNA and neurons perhaps even causing neuro-degenerative diseases and autism. In this regard, the potenrial for NPs to produce UV radiation upon equilibrating with blood temperature is of great interest.

In this regard, thei Abstract is presented.


The 19th Electromagnetic and Light Scattering Conference (ELS-XIX)
 will be held at the ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia, from 13 - 17 July 2020. 

Light interaction in electromagnetic (EM) modes of macroscopic particles [1] is based on Maxwell
equations, but applications to nanoparticles (NPs) will require consideration of the Planck law of
quantum mechanics that denies atoms in nanostructures the heat capacity to conserve heat by an
increase in temperature. Simple QED is a nanoscale heat transfer process (nothing to do with Feyn-
man's QED) similar to inelastic Raman scattering that changes the frequency of absorbed light, but
differs in that absorption and emission occur in size dependent EM quantum states of the
nanostructure. Since NPs are small compared the wavelength of incident light, simple QED as-
sumes light is absorbed over the NP surface consistent with the high surface surface-to-volume
ratio of NPs. But the Planck law precludes conservation of absorbed light by a temperature in-
crease, and therefore simple QED asserts standing EM radiation is created inside the NP, the ab-
sorbed surface heat itself providing the EM confinement to constrain standing EM radiation inside
and across the NP diameter. In effect, simple QED conserves EM heat in nanoscale regions by
creating EM radiation - not temperature. Hence, Maxwell simulations of nanoscale regions need
to include light emission instead of temperature changes.

A preliminary Abstract is available.


Nanoscale heat transfer of nanoholes (NHs) in solids is presented as the inside-out version of solid nanoparticles (NPs) in air. However, classical light-heat interaction in electromagnetic (EM) modes of NPs and NHs is not valid and requires consideration of the Planck law of quantum mechanics that denies atoms in NHs and NPs the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature. Simple QED is a nanoscale heat transfer process (nothing to do with Feynman's QED) that is based on the Planck law by conserving heat in local nanoscale regions of a structure by the emission of EM radiation instead of temperature. Unlike elastic Mie scattering, simple QED is similar to inelastic Raman scattering that includes changes the emission frequency of absorbed light, but differs in that conservation occurs in size dependent EM quantum states E of the nanostructure. Since both NHs and NPs are presumed small compared the wavelength of incident light, simple QED assumes light is absorbed over NH and NP surfaces. Since the Planck law precludes conservation of absorbed light by a temperature increase, simple QED assumes standing EM radiation is created inside the NH or NP, the absorbed surface heat itself providing the EM confinement to constrain standing EM radiation inside the NH and NP. In effect, simple QED conserves heat from light in nanoscale regions by creating EM radiation - not temperature. Examples are presented to illustrate how heat transfer of inside - out NPs is related to NHs.

A short Paper is available.


Similar to ELS XIX, the LIP paper is based on the simple QED heat transfer process in nanoparticles(NPs) similar to inelastic Raman scattering that changesthe frequency of incident light. Interaction of the light withthe NP surface occurs as the high surface-to-volume ratioof NPs deposits the heat of absorbed light in the NPsurface. But the Planck law precludes temperatureincreases in NPs, and therefore standing EM radiation iscreated inside the NP corresponding to a size dependentquantum state having a half-wavelength equal to thedimension over which the EM waves stand.

A preliminary Paper is available.


CMBR as Oort Cloud Radiation

International Conference on Astrophysics and Particle Physics and Cosmology
July 23-24, 2020 in Berlin, Germany


Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) evolved from early Big Bang models by Gamow. Only later in 1965 did Penzias and Wilson discover the microwave radiation coming from space as black body EM radiation with a temperature of about 10 K. Dicke did not believe that the radiation came from a cold source, and instead proposed the cold temperatures were produced during the Big Bang in the expansion of the Universe. But Penzias and Wilson were most likely measuring microwaves from the Oort Cloud at 10,000 AU naturally cold at 2.7 K instead of the CMBR.

Apparently, the Nobel commitee  unaware of the Oort cloud awarded the 2019 prize in physics to Peebles for interpreting the CMBR as the relic of the Big Bang and integrating dark matter and dark energy into the cosmology. In this paper, the CMBR and local anisotropy is proposed to be blackbody radiation from Oort cloud debris in thermal equilibrium with the Sun suggesting to the Nobel commitee the Big Bang never happened.  The Oort cloud showing the planets in our solar system are depicted below.


Conclusions:

What Penzias and Wilson were measuring in 1965 was blackbody radiation from the Oort cloud that today is known as CMBR given by the black body temperature of ~ 2.7 K at frequency 160 GHz.

Gamow's Big Bang model advanced by Dicke and others concluding the CMBR is the relic of Universe expansion is highly questionable as the CMBR created in the Oort cloud of our Solar system suggests the Big Bang never happened. The Nobel committtee award to Peebles for interpreting the CMBR as the relic of Universe expansion is unfortunate.

Thermal equilibrium of blackbody radiation between the Sun at 5800 K and the Oort cloud at temperature ~ 2.7 K is a far more credible rationale than Universe expansion.

Blackbody theory does not require the Oort cloud to be continuous and opaque to absorb and emit blackbody radiation. Discrete particulate and debris are acceptable black bodies separated by large spaces to allow light of the Universe to reach the Earth.

The CMBR dipole anisotropy caused by the red and blue shift of CMBR photons as the Earth moves in orbit around the Sun produces the dipole anistropy.

The Oort cloud as the source of the CMBR allows microwave emission from discrete debris to be a natural explanation for the observed higher order CMBR anisotropy.

A preliminary Abstract is available.

Bremen Workshop on Light Scattering 2020

Simple QED Nanoscale Heat Transfer

The absorption in Raman scattering?


Simple QED is a nanoscale heat transfer process similar to inelastic Raman scattering in that upon absorption the changes the frequency of incident light is increased or decreased. The light is absorbed almost totally in the nanostructure surface because of their high surface-to-volume ratios. but the temperature does not increase because the Planck law precludes temperature increases at the nanoscale. Conservation of absorbed heat therefore proceeds by creating standing EM radiation inside the nanostructure defined by a size dependent quantum state having half-wavelength equal to the dimension over which the EM waves stand. Simple QED therefore differs significantly from classical physics.

Classical physics allows the atom to have heat capacity at the nanoscale, the conservation of heat proceeding by a concomitant change in temperature. However, heat trans-fer at the nanoscale is controlled by the Planck law of quantum mechanics differing significantly from classical heat transfer by denying atoms in nanostructures the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature. Over the past decades, nanotechnology has generally ignored the Planck law and continued to use classical physics to explain nanoscale phenomenon, the consequence of which is an uncountable number of meaningless papers in the literature.

Of relevance to Light Scattering 2020 is the similarity of simple QED to Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). Unlike elastic Mie theory, SERS is inelastic as excitation laser light is not only scattered from molecules adsorbed to nanostructure surfaces, but also absorbed in both the molecules and the nanostructure as heat, neither of which by the Planck law increase in temperature. Instead, simple QED converts: (a) the heat in molecules to EM radiation at the frequencies of the molecular quantum states, and (b) the heat in the nanostructures is converted to size dependent quantum states of the nanostructure.  Typically, the size dependent states are in the EUV and excite lower states by fluorescing down to UV levels to excite plasmon resonances in the IR and VIS. 

The simple QED version of Raman scattering is shown below. Laser light illuminates molecules adsorbed on nanoparticles (NP). The molecule directly scatters the laser light (red), but the NP also absorbs some laser light which is converted by simple QED to EM radiation that also excite the molecule (yellow) or is emitted (blue). Hence, the SERS measurement is enhanced including both scattered (red) and simple QED (blue) radiation.  


To illustrate the differences between simple QED and classical heat transfer, the response of a 85 nm spherical iron NP placed in a thermal water bath at 300 K is presented.  The Planck energy E of the single fixed size dependent state is, E = 4.88 eV in the UVC having wavelength 254 nm. At equilibrium, the temperatures of the NP iron atoms is 300 K having thermal enegy U ~ 1 Mev. Since temperature cannot increase, about200,000 UVC photons that are created and emitted into the bath. In biological water, the UVC damages DNA which usually of no consequence as the immune system repairs DNA damage, but if not health issues are at risk, e.g., vaccinations having aluminum NPs that enter the brain through the blood stream may lead to autism.

A preliminary Paper is available. Similarly, a preliminary Presentation and Audio is available. Open both in separate windows and manually adjust the Presentation to the Audio.


ATP synthesis in Myosin Heads

In muscle contraction, mitochondria provide an efficient but limited conversion of glucose to ATP that otherwise proceeds by the inefficient process of glycolysis of pyruvate and fatty acids. Historically, ATP synthesis in mitochondria occurs by hydrolysis from chemiosmotic hydrogen ion gradients across the inner membrane. However, ATP synthesis in mitochondria may far more simply proceed by dehydration reactions powered by exogenous UV produced from the size dependent mitochondrial features, a process that may be extended to each of the many heads on the myosin filament thereby increasing ATP synthesis without the need for pyruvate and fatty acids.

Exogenous UV is a consequence of the Planck law of quantum mechanics that denies atoms in nanoscale myosin heads the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature. In this regard, the simple QED theory of nanoscale heat transfer is based on conserving heat by creating standing EM waves inside the myosin heads. Unlike electronic quantum states, simple QED is based on size dependent quantum states defined by the dimensions of the nanostructure over which the EM waves stand.

By simple QED, the endogenous EUV created inside myosin heads by the photoelectric effect produces the positive charge in electrostatic muscle contraction as depicted in the figure below.

Only the myosin heads charge positive - the myosin and actin filaments carry their natural negative charge. Also, the Z-disk is naturally charged negative, but along with attached actin filaments may be briefly positively charged by neuron action potentials. Muscle contraction occurs as all positive charged myosin heads are attracted to the nearest negative charged Z-disk. Upon contact of the myosin tips with the actin at the Z-disk, the positive charges are neutralized and muscle contraction ceases. Muscle relaxation occurs by Coulomb repulsion of negatively charged myosin and Z-disks.

Myosin heads not only provide an electrostatic basis to muscle contraction, but in muscles supersede mitochondria in ATP synthesis. A preliminary Paper is available.

In summary,

ATP synthesis in the cross-bridge ratchetting mechanism of the sliding-filament model is superseded by UV enhanced ATP hydration synthesis induced by electrostatic muscle contraction from positive charged myosin heads, the charge created by the photoelectric effect from endogenous EUV conserving heat from the thermal surroundings. 

Myosin heads undergo ATP synthesis by UV enhanced dehydration during times of muscle relaxation providing heat to maintain the temperature of the thermal surroundings. But during demands of bodily movement, muscle contraction occurs as  the myosin heads produce EUV radiation that fluoresces down to UV levels and creates positive charge by the photoelectric effect. 

Myosin heads not bound to negative charged actin filaments carry positive charge. But contact by Coulomb attraction neutralizes positive charged myosin heads. Upon loss of contact, myosin heads promptly regain positive charge in < 1 ps.

Heat in the thermal surroundings creates the EUV photons inside the myosin head and produces  photoelectric charging. A single ATP binding to a myosin head releases 0.304 eV, but a EUV photon standing across the length of the myosin head requires 37.6 eV. Heat from the thermal surroundings powers muscle contraction and not ATP binding, although ATP binding contributes to thermal heating.

Like myosin heads, ATP synthesis in mitochondria is produced by endogenous UV instead of hydrolysis by chemiosmosis from a H+ ion gradient through the membrane wall. EUV enhanced ATP synthesis by dehydration in the myosin heads produces ATP directly in the muscle without need for mitochondria.


Planck - Forgotten by Nanotechnology?


Classical physics allows the atom to have heat capacity at the nanoscale, the conservation of heat proceeding by a change in temperature. However, the Planck law of quantum mechanics denies the atom the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature. Over the past decades, nanotechnology has ignored the Planck law and continued to perform nanoscale heat transfer based on classical physics, the consequence of which is an uncountable number of meaningless papers. Perhaps, the following caricature will remind us of the Planck law in;

Nanoscale heat transfer.


The simple QED theory of nanoscale heat transfer theory is based on the Planck law. Heat is conserved by creating standing EM waves inside the nanostructures. Unlike electronic quantum states, simple QED comprises size dependent quantum states depending on the dimensions of the nanostructure over which the EM waves stand.

Simple QED is applied to the heat transfer of a nanoparticle immersed in a liquid bath constant temperature to illustrate the differences. A preliminary Paper is available.

Heat transfer at the nanoscale is controlled by the Planck law of quantum mechanics differing significantly from that of classical physics. Research in nanoscale heat transfer has advanced over the past decades shows a large number of interesting phenomena. But despite the advances in nanotechnology, there are still challenges existing in understanding the mechanism of nanoscale thermal transport. Perhaps, researchers have not appreciated the significant difference between classical physics taught us by Planck with regard to the heat capacity of the atom without which nanoscale heat transfer cannot proceed. 

Absent heat capacity, heat transfer without changes in temperature preclude the Fourier law of heat conduction commonly used in nanoscale heat transfer. Similarly, the Stefan-Boltzmann law for radiative heat transfer depending on temperature is not applicable to nanostructures. Although valid at the macroscale, Fourier and Stefan-Boltzmann equations are invalid at the nanoscale. Since the 1960's, Molecular dynamics based on classical physics thought to provide an understanding of the atomic response to thermal disturbances assume atoms in nanostructures have temperature. Clearly, researchers need both the development of new theory and computational procedures to understand nanoscale heat transfer.



Electrostatic Muscle Contraction


Background of importance began in the 1960's with Mitchell's synthesis of ATP in mitochondria by chemiosmosis driven by the flow of H+ ions across the inner membrane.  In contrast, Sagan et al. proposed ATP synthesis by dehydration reactions under intense UV radiation and showed experimentally UV enhanced ATP synthesis from ADP + P.  
    
But ATP by hydrolysis and not UV dehydration was adopted as the basis for the sliding-filament model of muscle contraction. The contraction between actin and myosin filaments was thought to be a conformation of myosin heads of ADP + P attaching to actin to perform the power stroke. Upon binding with another ATP, the head detaches from actin in recovery by a conformation change, the process repeating like a ratchet during sliding.   
 
In the 1980's, the sliding-filament model of muscle contraction based on ATP hydrolysis was questioned because the chemo-mechanical energy conversion between ATP by hydrolysis and contraction force was never confirmed, i.e., the cross-bridge theory assumes obscure conformational changes convert ATP into the force of muscle contraction. Others proposed mechanisms that avoided conformational  change, but none gained acceptance. Since then, the sliding filament theory based on conformation still pervades muscle contraction, although am electrostatic basis to muscle contraction has gained limited acceptance. The problem is residues in both myosom amd actin filaments carry a negative charge so cannot provide the Coulomb attraction required for muscle contraction suggesting the myosin heads somehow charge positive.

In this regard, the folowing muscle contraction mechansim is proposed.

Muscle contraction triggered by an action potential creates positive charge in myosin heads from endogenous EUV radiation upon absorbing heat from the thermal surroundings. The EUV is the consequence of simple QED based on the Planck law of quantum mechanics that denies atoms in nanoscale myosin heads the heat capacity for conservation to proceed by an increase in temperature. Instead, EM radiation at EUV levels is created standing inside myosin heads that charges the myosin heads positive allowing muscle contraction by Coulomb attraction with the negative charged α-actin at the Z-line. Upon contact, muscle contraction ceases as the positive charged myosin heads are neutralized by the dominant negative charged α-actin. Muscle relaxation occurs as now both negatively charged myosin and actin filaments undergo Coulomb repulsion returning the myosin to the rest position in preparation for the next action potential. The charging process is illustrated below.
 


Preliminary conclusions are:

Muscle contraction in the sliding-filament model by cross-bridges is superseded by electrostatic attraction from positive charged myosin heads, the charge created by endogenous EUV in conserving heat from the thermal surroundings.
 
Myosin heads not bound to negative charged actin filaments always carry positive charge. But contact with myosin or actin filaments neutralizes the positive charged myosin heads. Upon loss of contact, myosin heads regain positive charge in < 1 ps.
 
Heat in the thermal surroundings creates the EUV photons inside the myosin head to allow photoelectric charging. A single ATP binding to a myosin head releases 0.304 eV, but a EUV photon standing across the length of the myosin head requires 37.6 eV. Heat from the thermal surroundings powers muscle contraction and not ATP binding, although ATP binding contributes to thermal heating.
 
Muscle contraction aside, ATP in mitochondria is produced by endogenous UV instead of hydrolysis by chemiosmosis from a H+ ion gradient through the membrane wall. EUV enhanced ATP synthesis by dehydration in the myosin heads produces ATP directly. Mitochondria are not needed to produce ATP in  muscles.  
 
The seminal question in muscle contraction as is: How is chemical energy converted to mechanical work?  The answer is: Convert the chemical energy to heat and then create charge from heat to produce force by electrostatics.

A preliminary Paper is available,


Muscle contraction by Endogenous UV


In the 1960's, the origin of life captivated biological research. Mitchell proposed ATP synthesis in mitochondria followed hydrolysis given by chemiosmosis driven by the flow of H+ ions across the inner membrane. Chemiosmosis occurred by a chain of complex redox reactions with electron transfer from donors to acceptors assisted by enzymes. In contrast, Sagan et al. proposed life on the early Earth began by a dehydration reaction under intense UV radiation and showed experimentally ATP was formed from ADP + P under UV. However, ATP by hydrolysis and not UV dehydration was included in the sliding-filament model of muscle contraction. The contraction between actin and myosin is thought to be a conformation of myosin heads of ADP + P attaching to actin to perform the power stroke. Upon binding with another ATP, the head detaches from actin in recovery by a conformation change, the process repeating like a ratchet during sliding.  
 
In 1971, the cross-bridge mechanism comprising a repetitive ratchet attachment and detachment of the myosin head to actin was adopted as the sliding-filament model of muscle contraction. Estimates of the axial force on the actin were based on the potential energy difference U between the myosin head positions of attachment of a cross-bridge, U = 4 kB T, where kB is Boltzmann's constant and T is absolute temperature. Letting h be the travel the stable positions, the force F = kBT /h that for h = 8 nm gives F = 2 pN and link stiffness k = F/h = 0.25 pN/nm. Since actual muscle fiber pressure p = 3 x 10^5 N/m2, about 1.5 x 10^17 bridges per m2 are therefore required in each half-sarcomere. But the number of bridges in half-sarcomeres observed in micrograph is < 150 - far less than required by cross-bridge theory.  
 
The seminal question in muscle contraction is: How is chemical energy converted to mechanical work?  
 
Muscle contraction is proposed to be the consequence of converting heat from the surroundings into the mechanical work of contracting actin filaments by electrostatic forces induced by charge in the myosin heads, the charge created by the photoelectric effect from endogenous EUV radiation produced in myosin heads by simple QED radiation. The myosin  head in the sliding-filament model adapted for endogenous EUV in muscle contraction is shown below.   
    

The myosin heads are depicted locally absorbing heat Q. The heat is inherent in the thermal surroundings from all sources, not necessarily ATP. On a relative basis, a single ATP heat released in binding to the myosin head is a small fraction of the heat contributing to the temperature of thermal surroundings.  
 
The myosin heads are treated as 20 nm spherical nanoparticles (NPs) comprised of atoms absent heat capacity by the Planck law.  The NPs cannot conserve heat Q by an increase in temperature and instead emit spherical EUV radiation that fluoresces down to UV levels.  The EUV is used in a dehydration reaction with available ADP and P to produce ATP. However, the EUV also removes electrons from the myosin heads by the photoelectric effect to create a positive charge.
 
With both myosin and actin initially charged negative, the positive charged area near the myosin tips undergoes Coulomb attraction to the negative charged α-actin ends at the Z-line.  Upon contact of the myosin tips with the actin at the Z-line, the positive charges are neutralized and muscle contraction ceases. Muscle relaxation occurs by Coulomb repulsion of negatively charged myosin and α-actin. Taking the electrostatic force F = 2 pN, the positive charge q ~100 electron charges or 100 singly charged myosin heads. Assuming each myosin head produces 1 EUV photon that fluoresces down to 1 UVC photon, 1 electron is emitted leaving the head with a single positive q charge. Since about 150 myosin heads are available in a half-sarcomere, 100 heads produced the 2 pN contraction force.
 
But is the single EUV photon created by thermal metabolic heat or ATP binding?  
 
Consider the heat Q from the thermal surroundings to create the EUV photon and ignore the heat from ATP binding. The change in surface temperature under the absorption of the Planck energy E of a EUV photon pulse given from the surrounding muscle and blood is shown below. 


The change in the temperature of the surroundings is about 20 K and takes < 1 ps which may be considered instantaneous. What this means is EUV creation in the myosin heads occurs at the instant the  heads  lose contact with actin. Moreover, the EUV does not depend on the release of heat upon ATP binding. The single EUV photon is created from the thermal surroundings alone. This is necessary as a single ATP binding to the myosin head only releases 0.304 eV - far less than the 10.35 eV required to create the EUV photon.

Moreover, the < 150 myosin heads on the half-sarcomere are more than sufficient to produce muscle contraction. Muscle contraction is proposed to occur by electrostatic charge from endogenous EUV radiation created from the heat absorbed in myosin heads. The EUV is the consequence of the Planck law of quantum mechanics that denies head atoms the heat capacity for conservation to proceed by an increase in temperature. With both myosin and actin naturally carrying negative charge, the EUV charges the myosin heads positive allowing Coulomb attraction with the nearby axially disposed negative charged α-actin at the Z-line. Muscle attraction occurs for < 15 ms until the myosin tip contacts the α-actin, at which time the charge is neutralized and muscle contraction ceases. Muscle relaxation occurs as now both negatively charged myosin and actin undergo Coulomb repulsion.  A preliminary Paper is available.   
 
In conclusion,

Muscle contraction is proposed to occur by electrostatic charge from endogenous EUV radiation created from the heat absorbed in myosin heads. The EUV is the consequence of the Planck law of quantum mechanics that denies head atoms the heat capacity for conservation to proceed by an increase in temperature. With both myosin and actin naturally carrying negative charge, the EUV charges the myosin heads positive allowing Coulomb attraction with the nearby axially disposed negative charged α-actin at the Z-line. Muscle attraction occurs for < 15 ms until the myosin tip contacts the α-actin, at which time the charge is neutralized and muscle contraction ceases. Muscle relaxation occurs as now both negatively charged myosin and actin undergo Coulomb repulsion.    
   
Muscle contraction in the sliding-filament model by cross-bridges is superseded by electrostatic attraction from positive charged myosin heads near the negative α-actin Z-line, the charge created from endogenous EUV by conserving heat from the thermal surroundings.   
 
ATP In mitochondria extended to muscle contraction is produced by endogenous UV instead of hydrolysis by chemiosmosis from a H+ ion gradient through the membrane wall. During resting conditons, the EUV within the myosin heads is available to produce ATP from ADP + P  upon binding to the myosin head surface.

Heat in the thermal surroundings creates the EUV photons inside the myosin head to allow photoelectric charging. A single ATP binding to a myosin head releases 0.304 eV, but a UVC and EUV photon require 4.88 and 10.35 eV. Heat from the thermal surroundings powers muscle contraction and not ATP binding.


E-cigarettes and cancer?


Electronic e-cigarettes are common throughout the world. E-cigarettes deliver the nicotine stimulant through aerosols to the lungs without burning tobacco. Recently, e-cigarette smokers have mysteriously expressed nicotine poisoning symptoms including nausea and vomiting, excessive salivation, headache, and dizziness followed later by a period of central nervous system depression, paralysis, difficulty in breathing and even death.

Unlike the immediacy of nicotine poisoning, the potential of cancer developing decades later from e-cigarettes was assessed with DNA tests that showed nicotine enhanced the UV-induced DNA mutation frequency in both human lung and bladder epithelial cells by two- to fourfold.

Unlike tobacco smoke, e-cigarette aerosols are thought to contain nicotine and relatively harmless organic solvents, and therefore e-cigarettes are considered non-carcinogenic and a safer substitute for tobacco. But this is questionable as the e-cigarette aersol contains nanoparticles (NPs).  Although NPs are not the major component in the aerosol, NPs are the most important. NPs by emitting UV radiation excite nicotine to high electronic states to enhance mutagenic DNA and inhibit DNA repair in human lung and bladder epithelial cells, all of which are unlikely for nicotine in the ground state.

NPs make e-cigarette smoking far more serious in future cancers than normal cigarettes. E-cigarettes produce NPs from the metal heater. For Blu Classic Tobacco - 5 second puff - Flow rate 15 ml/s - Liquid dilution 1/30, the concentration of NPs depends on 'puff time' and 'particle size' as shown below. The concentration of UVC radiation is shown by the yelllow line.


Once the NPs are free in the aerosol, simple QED predicts heating induces the NPs depending on NP size to emit EM radiation in the EUV-UVC-UV-VIS-IR.  NPs > 100 nm producing VIS and IR are harmless. Irrespective of the NP metal, the average EM radiation of 50-70 nm NPs is in the UV coinciding with the UVC absorption peak of nicotine and DNA spectra. EUV produced in < 50 nm NPs produce UVC by fluorescence, but may be neglected because of the low conversion efficiency.

Enhanced DNA damage is consistent with simple QED that predicts NPs produced from the metal heater in the e-cigarette emit UV radiation known to cause DNA mutations. Simple QED is the consequence of the Planck law that denies atoms in NPs the heat capacity to conserve heat by an increase in temperature, and therefore conservation proceeds by the NP creating size-dependent standing EM radiation within and across the NP diameter. Of concern, 50-100 nm NPs emit in the UV. The EM confinement for the surface heat to be converted into standing UV is the high surface-to-volume ratios of NPs that requires the absorbed heat to be deposited in the NP surface, the EM energy of the surface heat itself providing the brief, but necessary EM confinement. Once the surface heat is expended in creating the standing UV radiation the EM confinement vanishes, and the UV radiation is free to raise the nicotine to an excited state and/or damage DNA. See preliminary Paper.  A revised PaperR is available.

The mystery of nicotine poisoning is solved by removing the heater, but then the nicotine would remain in the ground state and not stimulate the smoker's senses. Perhaps, smoking conventional cigarettes is safer than e-cigarettes?


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