Quotations


Thought for Us


Imagination takes you everywhere


A. Einstein


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Light from Heat


The Carnot efficiency of a heat engine operating between hot and cold reservoirs implicitly assumes some heat to always be loss to the surroundings thereby precluding converting heat directly into work. Over 200 years, the Carnot limit based on classical physics implies 100% efficiency is only possible if all thermal energy is removed which can only occur if the cold reservoir is at absolute zero.

Although valid for the common heat engine, the Carnot limit of classical physics is not applicable to microscopic heat engines governed by the Planck law of quantum mechanics which denies the atom under high EM confinement the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature, i.e., a 100% Carnot efficiency is possible, but does not depend on temperature of the cold reservoir. Indeed, heat transfer at the nanoscale by simple QED theory conserves heat by the emission of EM radiation instead of a temperature change.  By simple QED, microscopic heat engines remove all thermal energy and directly convert heat to work at 100% Carnot efficiency by emitting EM radiation in the form of non-thermal photons. 

Application of simple QED shows converting heat from the ambient 20 °C temperature environment in a 2 cm square silicon surface decorated with a pattern of laser induced 140 nm bottom truncated spherical nanoparticles can produce 50 W light bulbs emitting green light at 580 nm powered only by natural convection. 

Conclusions:

The classical Carnot heat engine cannot be 100% efficient as some heat is always loss to the surroundings. 100% conversion of heat QH from the hot reservoir at temperature TH to work W requires a cold reservoir temperature TC of absolute zero.

Microscopic Carnot engines governed by the Planck law avoid the absolute zero requirement of classical physics to allow 100% efficiency by denying the atom under high EM confinement the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature. Instead, heat is conserved by directly producing work in the emission of EM radiation or photons.

Laser enhanced decoration of 130-140 nm bottom truncated silicon NPs on small 2 cm square silicon films are shown by simple QED to support the fabrication of small 50 W surfaces emitting 580 nm green-light powered only by natural convection from air at 20 °C 

The classical notion that in order to turn heat into red-light a metal needs to be heated to approximately 2000 K is superseded by simple QED under natural convection in air at 20 °C.

The enhanced efficiency of heating the LEDs to 135 °C is caused by the simple QED conversion of heat to work in the form of photons without a need for a cold TC reservoir that does indeed satisfy the second law. 
Laser-induced heating of submicron films of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 separated by pure SiO2 spacers found to increase the radiative emission cannot depend on temperature dependent phonon production as the Planck law denies the existence of temperature at the nanoscale.

A preliminary Paper is available.


CMB Radiation is NOT a Relic of the Big Bang

 
The CMB evolved from Big Bang models by Gamow. Only in 1965 did Penzias and Wilson discover the microwave radiation coming from space. Dicke and others concluded the microwave radiation was a relic of the Big Bang. Today, the CMB temperature is 2.725 ± 0.00057 K. However, the CMB may have nothing to do with the Big Bang and only be microwave emission from debris in the Oort Cloud of our solar system. 

Unlike the disk-like Planetary System in the ecliptic of the Sun, the Oort cloud is spherical allowing the emission of EM radiation observed by Penzias and Wilson to be uniform in all directions. At 10,000 AU, the Oort cloud at 2.725 K varies by ±0.00057 K spread over about 12 AU. Because the Planck law denies atoms at a given temperature below a certain EM confinement wavelength λ the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature, a debris temperature of 2.725 K is only possible for solar radiation having wavelengths λ> 20,000 microns where atoms have classical and finite heat capacity. 

What this means is for λ < 20,000 microns, solar heat is not conserved by a change in temperature, but by creating EM waves standing across debris diameters d  > λ /2n, where n is the refractive index of the debris. Taking n = 1.5, the minimum debris diameter d is 7 m that means small  to the 8 billion larger asteroids > 5 km reported in the Oort cloud are emitting discrete CMB radiation that appears spotted on WMAP and Planck surveys. Since the CMB of the Big Bang would be uniform and not spotted, the CMB is NOT a relic of the Big Bang 

A preliminary Abstract is available. 


Covid-19: Efficacy of nanoparticles and mRNA vaccines 


The CDC approach to the Covid-19 virus was traditional: quickly develop a vaccine that usually takes years, but even if successful in the near term is impossible to implement for the entire World population, let alone unacceptable because of attendant social unrest and economic collapse. On this basis alone, the traditional approach for Covid-19 is not likely to be successful. 

Moreover, vaccines typically contain fragments of inactivated viruses. In this regard, the current Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines differ in that the inactivated virus is not used, but rather the patient receives an injection of genetic material –mRNA– that encodes the spike protein of Covid-19 virus as the antigen to elicit Covid-19 immunity, the process taking place inside the patient's body. 

Since the mRNA molecule is fragile and disintegrates upon entering the cell, the mRNA is dispersed inside ~ 80 nm fatty lipid nanoparticles (NPs). Unfortunately, the NPs naturally emit UVC radiation that inactivates mRNA which makes the concept of mRNA vaccines unworkable. Even so, the mRNA vaccines by Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna are reported to have a 94.5% efficacy clearly suggesting a mechanism other than mRNA is inactivating the Covid-19.

 In this regard, the Covid-19 NP Treatment based on NPs inducing UVC was proposed in mid-2020 as the mechanism to avoid obvious logistical problems in the World-wide delivery of cold storage requirements of Covid-19 vaccines.  In the Covid-19 NP Treatment, the UVC need only inactivate a few of the live Covid-19 virus in the patient that then act as the antigen to elicit Covid-19 immunity. But UVC also damages DNA of neurons in the brain. Low NP doses reduce UVC levels to allow correction of DNA damage by repair systems. 

But if NP doses are too high, DNA repair systems are overwhelmed and neurological symptoms appear like reported Bell's palsy and allergic reactions. The CDC is requested remove the un-necessary mRNA from vaccines and use the NP Treatment at reduced NP doses. The World population need not be treated, rather only if the patient is tested positive for Covid-19. 

 Summary argument:

Since influenza vaccines based on inactivated virus have only 50% efficacy, and since Moderna's Covid-19 mRNA vaccine is the genetic equivalent of an inactivated Covid-19 spike, the efficacy of the Covid-19 mRNA vaccine should be near 50% - not over 90%.

Hence,

 The mRNA concept  with ~ 80 nm lipid NP carriers emitting UVC is unworkable. But the NP Treatment using NP > 100 nm would emit IR which would not inactivate the mRNA to make the mRNA concept viable, but would reduce the Covid-19 efficacy near 50%

 The Abstract of 'Nanoparticles and mRNA Covid-19 efficacy",  Paper , and mp4 Video are available.



Classical physics allows the atom to have heat capacity at the nanoscale, the conservation of heat proceeding by a change in temperature. However, simple QED based on the Planck law of quantum mechanics denies the atom in nanostructures the heat capacity to conserve heat by a change in temperature, the consequence of which is heat is conserved by creating standing EM radiation that is released to the surroundings. 

UVC radiation is known to disinfect Coronavirus in the air or on surrounding surfaces, but not inside body organs.

 In this regard, Covid-19 patients diagnosed positive for having the virus in their body are proposed disinfected by a single injection of ~80 nm lipid nanoparticles (NPs) selected to emit UVC radiation. Powered only by body heat, the NPs inactivate at least a few viruses to create the antigens necessary to elicit immunity that removes the remaining virus in the body.

 In effect, the UVC Treatment is an 'in vivo' vaccine. In the blood stream, the NPs may enter the brain and damage neurons and DNA, but with brief UVC Treatments the risk of brain damage is expected to be minimal. CDC testing to determine acceptable NP doses is required to avoid neurological problems in Covid-19 patirnts.

A preliminary Paper and 10 minute MP4 Video are available.